SNP genotyping in melons: genetic variation, population structure, and linkage disequilibrium.
Theor Appl Genet. 2013 Feb 5;
Authors: Esteras C, Formisano G, Roig C, Díaz A, Blanca J, Garcia-Mas J, Gómez-Guillamón ML, López-Sesé AI, Lázaro A, Monforte AJ, Picó B
Novel sequencing technologies were recently used to generate sequences from multiple melon (Cucumis melo L.) genotypes, enabling the in silico identification of large single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) collections. In order to optimize the use of these markers, SNP validation and large-scale genotyping are necessary. In this paper, we present the first validated design for a genotyping array with 768 SNPs that are evenly distributed throughout the melon genome. This customized Illumina GoldenGate assay was used to genotype a collection of 74 accessions, representing most of the botanical groups of the species. Of the assayed loci, 91 % were successfully genotyped. The array provided a large number of polymorphic SNPs within and across accessions. This set of SNPs detected high levels of variation in accessions from this crop's center of origin as well as from several other areas of melon diversification. Allele distribution throughout the genome revealed regions that distinguished between the two main groups of cultivated accessions (inodorus and cantalupensis). Population structure analysis showed a subdivision into five subpopulations, reflecting the history of the crop. A considerably low level of LD was detected, which decayed rapidly within a few kilobases. Our results show that the GoldenGate assay can be used successfully for high-throughput SNP genotyping in melon. Since many of the genotyped accessions are currently being used as the parents of breeding populations in various programs, this set of mapped markers could be used for future mapping and breeding efforts.
PMID: 23381808 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Evaluation of the use of high-density SNP genotyping to implement UPOV Model 2 for DUS testing in barley.
Theor Appl Genet. 2012 Dec 12;
Authors: Jones H, Norris C, Smith D, Cockram J, Lee D, O'Sullivan DM, Mackay I
Developments in high-throughput genotyping provide an opportunity to explore the application of marker technology in distinctness, uniformity and stability (DUS) testing of new varieties. We have used a large set of molecular markers to assess the feasibility of a UPOV Model 2 approach: "Calibration of threshold levels for molecular characteristics against the minimum distance in traditional characteristics". We have examined 431 winter and spring barley varieties, with data from UK DUS trials comprising 28 characteristics, together with genotype data from 3072 SNP markers. Inter varietal distances were calculated and we found higher correlations between molecular and morphological distances than have been previously reported. When varieties were grouped by kinship, phenotypic and genotypic distances of these groups correlated well. We estimated the minimum marker numbers required and showed there was a ceiling after which the correlations do not improve. To investigate the possibility of breaking through this ceiling, we attempted genomic prediction of phenotypes from genotypes and higher correlations were achieved. We tested distinctness decisions made using either morphological or genotypic distances and found poor correspondence between each method.
PMID: 23232576 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Evaluation of diagnostic molecular markers for DUS phenotypic assessment in the cereal crop, barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.).
Theor Appl Genet. 2012 Aug 17;
Authors: Cockram J, Jones H, Norris C, O'Sullivan DM
The deployment of genetic markers is of interest in crop assessment and breeding programmes, due to the potential savings in cost and time afforded. As part of the internationally recognised framework for the awarding of Plant Breeders' Rights (PBR), new barley variety submissions are evaluated using a suite of morphological traits to ensure they are distinct, uniform and stable (DUS) in comparison to all previous submissions. Increasing knowledge of the genetic control of many of these traits provides the opportunity to assess the potential of deploying diagnostic/perfect genetic markers in place of phenotypic assessment. Here, we identify a suite of 25 genetic markers assaying for 14 DUS traits, and implement them using a single genotyping platform (KASPar). Using a panel of 169 UK barley varieties, we show that phenotypic state at three of these traits can be perfectly predicted by genotype. Predictive values for an additional nine traits ranged from 81 to 99 %. Finally, by comparison of varietal discrimination based on phenotype and genotype resulted in correlation of 0.72, indicating that deployment of molecular markers for varietal discrimination could be feasible in the near future. Due to the flexibility of the genotyping platform used, the genetic markers described here can be used in any number or combination, in-house or by outsourcing, allowing flexible deployment by users. These markers are likely to find application where tracking of specific alleles is required in breeding programmes, or for potential use within national assessment programmes for the awarding of PBRs.
PMID: 22898724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Quality control genotyping for assessment of genetic identity and purity in diverse tropical maize inbred lines.
Theor Appl Genet. 2012 Jul 17;
Authors: Semagn K, Beyene Y, Makumbi D, Mugo S, Prasanna BM, Magorokosho C, Atlin G
Quality control (QC) genotyping is an important component in breeding, but to our knowledge there are not well established protocols for its implementation in practical breeding programs. The objectives of our study were to (a) ascertain genetic identity among 2-4 seed sources of the same inbred line, (b) evaluate the extent of genetic homogeneity within inbred lines, and (c) identify a subset of highly informative single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers for routine and low-cost QC genotyping and suggest guidelines for data interpretation. We used a total of 28 maize inbred lines to study genetic identity among different seed sources by genotyping them with 532 and 1,065 SNPs using the KASPar and GoldenGate platforms, respectively. An additional set of 544 inbred lines was used for studying genetic homogeneity. The proportion of alleles that differed between seed sources of the same inbred line varied from 0.1 to 42.3 %. Seed sources exhibiting high levels of genetic distance are mis-labeled, while those with lower levels of difference are contaminated or still segregating. Genetic homogeneity varied from 68.7 to 100 % with 71.3 % of the inbred lines considered to be homogenous. Based on the data sets obtained for a wide range of sample sizes and diverse genetic backgrounds, we recommended a subset of 50-100 SNPs for routine and low-cost QC genotyping, verified them in a different set of double haploid and inbred lines, and outlined a protocol that could be used to minimize errors in genetic analyses and breeding.
PMID: 22801872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]