Genome-wide SNP genotyping study using pooled DNA to identify candidate markers mediating susceptibility to end-stage renal disease attributed to Type 1 diabetes.
Diabet Med. 2009 Nov;26(11):1090-8
Authors: Craig DW, Millis MP, DiStefano JK
AIMS: Genetic factors play a major role in the progression of kidney disease in diabetes. To identify candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with potential effects on susceptibility to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), we performed a whole genome association scan using pooled DNA from Caucasian individuals with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We utilized the Illumina Infinium II HumanHap 550 beadchip platform to genotype 555 352 SNPs in DNA pools comprised of 547 cases with ESRD and 549 control subjects with Type 1 diabetes duration > 20 years and no ESRD. Pooled probe intensity was used to predict mean allele frequency (MAF) for each locus. Individual genotyping was performed using the iPLEX assay in conjunction with the MassARRAY platform (Sequenom). RESULTS: We identified 2870 markers showing substantial differences in MAF (5.0-10.7%) between pools. To initiate validation of these findings, we genotyped 22 high-ranking markers in 462 individuals with ESRD and 470 unaffected control subjects selected from the genome-wide SNP genotyping study sample. We observed the strongest evidence for association between ESRD and rs1749824, located in the ZMIZ1 gene [OR = 1.47 (1.21-1.78) per copy of T allele; P = 8.1 x 10(-5)] and rs9298190, located in the musculin gene [OR = 1.56 (1.28-1.91) per copy of C allele; P = 1.6 x 10(-5)]. Evidence for nominal association with markers in or near the IRS2, TMPO, BID, KLRA1, ELMO1 and CNDP1 genes was also observed (P < or = 0.0006). CONCLUSIONS: These findings identify several novel loci which may contribute to ESRD susceptibility in individuals with Type 1 diabetes.
PMID: 19929986 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
SNP genotyping of unpurified PCR products by sandwich-type affinity electrophoresis on a microchip with programmed autonomous solution filling.
Lab Chip. 2009 Nov 21;9(22):3297-302
Authors: Inoue A, Han A, Makino K, Hosokawa K, Maeda M
We demonstrate rapid single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping on a poly(dimethylsiloxane)-glass microchip. Sandwich-type affinity electrophoresis was employed to achieve sufficient specificity for reliable genotyping of unpurified PCR products. We tested three SNPs in different genes: CYP2D6 of artificial templates, and ALDH3A1 and CYP1A1 of human genomic samples. The target sequences were amplified by asymmetric PCR. For each SNP, we prepared a capture probe-poly(dimethylacrylamide) (CP-PDMA) conjugate and allele-specific, fluorescently-labeled detection probes (DPs). Prior to the electrophoresis, necessary solutions--the amplified sample, the CP-PDMA conjugate, the DPs, and a washer--were autonomously filled into their own regions of the microchannel in contact with each other. For precise control of this filling process, we have extended our published technique to a "programmed" version, in which additional passive stop valves synchronized the solution contacting events. Then we electrophoretically carried out a target DNA hybridization step, a DP hybridization step, and a washing step at the CP-PDMA conjugate region. This 3-step electrophoresis was completed in 2 min. The formation of the sandwich hybridization complex (CP-target-DP) was evaluated by fluorescence. Normalized fluorescence values of the different genotypes were clearly and reproducibly discriminated. The assay format presented here will be suitable for SNP genotyping at the point of care.
PMID: 19865739 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Large-scale SNP genotyping in crosses between outbred lines: how useful is it?
Heredity. 2010 Aug;105(2):173-82
Authors: Ledur MC, Navarro N, PÃ©rez-Enciso M
Although genome-wide association (GWA) studies are not worth the effort in crosses between inbred lines, many crosses are actually made up of divergent yet outbred populations. Despite its relevance, however, this experimental setting has not been studied at a time when SNP microarrays are available in many species. To assess whether GWA can be useful in this setting, we performed combined coalescence--gene dropping simulations. We studied the influence of marker density, QTL effect and QTL allele frequency on power, false discovery rate (FDR) and accuracy. Our results suggest that GWA in outbred F(2) crosses is useful, especially in large populations. Under these circumstances, accuracy increased and FDR decreased as compared with classical linkage analysis. However, current SNP densities (in the order of 30-60 K SNPs/genome or equivalent to 10-20 SNPs per cM) may not be much better than linkage analysis and higher SNP densities may be required. SNP ascertainment had an important effect; the best option was to select SNPs as uniformly as possible without setting any restriction on allele frequency. Using only SNPs with fixed alternative alleles in each breed controlled false positive rate but was not useful to detect variability within lines. Finally, the most significant SNP was not necessarily the closest to the causal SNP, although the closest SNPs were usually above the significance threshold; thus, it is prudent to follow-up significant signals located in regions of interest even if they do not correspond to absolute maxima.
PMID: 19844266 [PubMed - in process]
Application of high-resolution melting to large-scale, high-throughput SNP genotyping: a comparison with the TaqMan method.
Because of the wide use of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as markers of genetic variation, several high-throughput genotyping methods have been developed and applied during the past decades. High-resolution melting (HRM) is a very attractive, advanced, fast, and cost-effective SNP genotyping technology based on the analysis of the melting profile of PCR products, using intercalating fluorescent dyes to monitor the transition from unmelted to melted DNA. The authors used HRM for genotyping 215 human DNA samples for SNPs in the ABCB1, NQO1, and SLC19A1 genes and 96 samples for SNPs in the IL1A and IL12B genes with the aim of assessing HRM sensitivity and accuracy in comparisons with the TaqMan((R)) assay in view of large-scale, high-throughput SNP-typing applications. The potential effect of PCR product size, T(M), GC content, and SNP position on HRM performances was explored with amplicons that were heterogeneous for these factors. Discrimination power ranged from 91.4% to 98.4%, being significantly lower only when the number of rare homozygotes dropped to 1 or few units. The availability of specific and validated assays, in addition to a better standardization of HRM experimental conditions, can considerably reduce time and costs of large-scale genotyping studies with a negligible risk of failure or misclassification.
PMID: 20371868 [PubMed - in process]
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