Development and application of a novel genome-wide SNP array reveals domestication history in soybean.

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Development and application of a novel genome-wide SNP array reveals domestication history in soybean.

Sci Rep. 2016;6:20728

Authors: Wang J, Chu S, Zhang H, Zhu Y, Cheng H, Yu D

Abstract
Domestication of soybeans occurred under the intense human-directed selections aimed at developing high-yielding lines. Tracing the domestication history and identifying the genes underlying soybean domestication require further exploration. Here, we developed a high-throughput NJAU 355 K SoySNP array and used this array to study the genetic variation patterns in 367 soybean accessions, including 105 wild soybeans and 262 cultivated soybeans. The population genetic analysis suggests that cultivated soybeans have tended to originate from northern and central China, from where they spread to other regions, accompanied with a gradual increase in seed weight. Genome-wide scanning for evidence of artificial selection revealed signs of selective sweeps involving genes controlling domestication-related agronomic traits including seed weight. To further identify genomic regions related to seed weight, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted across multiple environments in wild and cultivated soybeans. As a result, a strong linkage disequilibrium region on chromosome 20 was found to be significantly correlated with seed weight in cultivated soybeans. Collectively, these findings should provide an important basis for genomic-enabled breeding and advance the study of functional genomics in soybean.

PMID: 26856884 [PubMed - in process]

Detection and replication of QTL underlying resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in adult sheep using the ovine 50K SNP array.

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Detection and replication of QTL underlying resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes in adult sheep using the ovine 50K SNP array.

Genet Sel Evol. 2016;48(1):4

Authors: Atlija M, Arranz JJ, Martinez-Valladares M, Gutiérrez-Gil B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Persistence of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infection and the related control methods have major impacts on the sheep industry worldwide. Based on the information generated with the Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip (50 K chip), this study aims at confirming quantitative trait loci (QTL) that were previously identified by microsatellite-based genome scans and identifying new QTL and allelic variants that are associated with indicator traits of parasite resistance in adult sheep. We used a commercial half-sib population of 518 Spanish Churra ewes with available data for fecal egg counts (FEC) and serum levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) to perform different genome scan QTL mapping analyses based on classical linkage analysis (LA), a combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis (LDLA) and a genome-wide association study (GWAS).
RESULTS: For the FEC and IgA traits, we detected a total of three 5 % chromosome-wise significant QTL by LA and 63 significant regions by LDLA, of which 13 reached the 5 % genome-wise significance level. The GWAS also revealed 10 significant SNPs associated with IgAt, although no significant associations were found for LFEC. Some of the significant QTL for LFEC that were detected by LA and LDLA on OAR6 overlapped with a highly significant QTL that was previously detected in a different half-sib population of Churra sheep. In addition, several new QTL and SNP associations were identified, some of which show correspondence with effects that were reported for different populations of young sheep. Other significant associations that did not coincide with previously reported associations could be related to the specific immune response of adult animals.
DISCUSSION: Our results replicate a FEC-related QTL located on OAR6 that was previously reported in Churra sheep and provide support for future research on the identification of the allelic variant that underlies this QTL. The small proportion of genetic variance explained by the detected QTL and the large number of functional candidate genes identified here are consistent with the hypothesis that GIN resistance/susceptibility is a complex trait that is not determined by individual genes acting alone but rather by complex multi-gene interactions. Future studies that combine genomic variation analysis and functional genomic information may help elucidate the biology of GIN disease resistance in sheep.

PMID: 26791855 [PubMed - in process]

SNP array screening of cryptic genomic imbalances in 450 Japanese subjects with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies previously negative for large rearrangements.

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SNP array screening of cryptic genomic imbalances in 450 Japanese subjects with intellectual disability and multiple congenital anomalies previously negative for large rearrangements.

J Hum Genet. 2016 Jan 7;

Authors: Uehara DT, Hayashi S, Okamoto N, Mizuno S, Chinen Y, Kosaki R, Kosho T, Kurosawa K, Matsumoto H, Mitsubuchi H, Numabe H, Saitoh S, Makita Y, Hata A, Imoto I, Inazawa J

Abstract
Intellectual disability (ID) is a heterogeneous condition affecting 2-3% of the population, often associated with multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). The genetic cause remains largely unexplained for most cases. To investigate the causes of ID/MCA of unknown etiology in the Japanese population, 645 subjects have been recruited for the screening of pathogenic copy-number variants (CNVs). Two screenings using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) arrays were previously performed, which identified pathogenic CNVs in 133 cases (20.6%; Hayashi et al., J. Hum. Genet., 2011). Here, we present the findings of the third screening using a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array, performed in 450 negative cases from our previous report. Pathogenic CNVs were found in 22 subjects (4.9%), in which 19 CNVs were located in regions where clinical significance had been previously established. Among the 22 cases, we identified PPFIA2 as a novel candidate gene for ID. Analysis of copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity (CNLOH) detected one case in which the CNLOH regions seem to be significant. The SNP array detected a modest fraction of small causative CNVs, which is explained by the fact that the majority of causative CNVs have larger sizes, and those had been mostly identified in the two previous screenings.Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 7 January 2016; doi:10.1038/jhg.2015.154.

PMID: 26740234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Monoallelic and biallelic deletions of 13q14 in a group of CLL/SLL patients investigated by CGH Haematological Cancer and SNP array (8x60K).

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Monoallelic and biallelic deletions of 13q14 in a group of CLL/SLL patients investigated by CGH Haematological Cancer and SNP array (8x60K).

Mol Cytogenet. 2016;9:1

Authors: Grygalewicz B, Woroniecka R, Rygier J, Borkowska K, Rzepecka I, Łukasik M, Budziłowska A, Rymkiewicz G, Błachnio K, Nowakowska B, Bartnik M, Gos M, Pieńkowska-Grela B

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Deletion of 13q14 is the most common cytogenetic change in chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) and is detected in about 50 % of patients by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), which can reveal presence of del(13)(q14) and mono- or biallelic deletion status without information about the size of the lost region. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) can detect submicroscopic copy number changes, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and uniparental disomy (UPD) regions. The purpose of this study was detection of the size of del(13)(q14) deletion in our group of patients, comparing the size of the monoallelic and biallelic deletions, detection of LOH and UPD regions.
RESULTS: We have investigated 40 CLL/SLL patients by karyotype, FISH and CGH and SNP array. Mutational status was of immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable-region (IGVH) was also examined. The size of deletion ranged from 348,12 Kb to 38.97 Mb. Detected minimal deleted region comprised genes: TRIM13, miR-3613, KCNRG, DLEU2, miR-16-1, miR-15a, DLEU1. The RB1 deletions were detected in 41 % of cases. The average size in monoallelic 13q14 deletion group was 7,2 Mb while in biallelic group was 4,8 Mb. In two cases 13q14 deletions were located in the bigger UPD regions.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that bigger deletion including RB1 or presence of biallelic 13q14 deletion is not sufficient to be considered as adverse prognostic factor in CLL/SLL. CytoSure Haematological Cancer and SNP array (8x60k) can precisely detect recurrent copy number changes with known prognostic significance in CLL/SLL as well as other chromosomal imbalances. The big advantage of this array is simultaneous detection of LOH and UPD regions during the same test.

PMID: 26740820 [PubMed]

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