The new CYP3A4 intron 6 C>T polymorphism (CYP3A4*22) is associated with an increased risk of delayed graft function and worse renal function in cyclosporine-treated kidney transplant patients.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Feb 29;
Authors: Elens L, Bouamar R, Hesselink DA, Haufroid V, van Gelder T, van Schaik RH
OBJECTIVE: Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a substrate of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Recently, a newly discovered intron 6 single-nucleotide polymorphism in CYP3A4 (rs35599367 C>T), defining the CYP3A4*22 allele, has been linked to reduced hepatic expression and activity of CYP3A4. In the present study, the clinical impact of this single-nucleotide polymorphism was investigated in a cohort of patients receiving a CsA-based immunosuppressive regimen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 172 de-novo kidney transplant recipients, receiving CsA/mycophenolate mofetil as immunosuppressive therapy and participating in the Fixed-Dose Concentration Controlled study, were genotyped for the new CYP3A4*22 allele. CsA C0 and/or C2 levels were measured on days 3 and 10 and in months 1, 3, 6, and 12 after transplantation. Plasma creatinine concentrations, delayed graft function (DGF), and biopsy-proven acute rejection were recorded. RESULTS: The CYP3A4*22 allele was significantly associated with a higher risk of DGF compared with the CYP3A4*1/*1 patients after adjustment for known risk factors [odds ratio (OR)=6.34, confidence interval (CI95%: 1.38-29.3), P=0.015]. Mixed-model analysis demonstrated that the overall creatinine clearance was 20% lower in CYP3A4*22 allele carriers compared with CYP3A4*1/*1 patients [CI95% (-33.1 to -7.2%), P=0.002]. For ABCB1 3435C>T, T-variant carriers had a decreased risk of developing DGF compared with CC patients [CT: OR=0.30, CI95% (0.11-0.77), P=0.011; TT: OR=0.18, CI95% (0.05-0.67), P=0.011]. CONCLUSION: CYP3A4*22 constitutes a risk factor for DGF and worse creatinine clearance in patients receiving CsA-based immunosuppressive therapy. Therefore, pretransplant genotyping for the CYP3A4*22 allele might help clinicians to identify patients at risk of DGF and poor renal function when treated with CsA.
PMID: 22388796 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
The limits of genome-wide methods for pharmacogenomic testing.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Feb 15;
Authors: Gamazon ER, Skol AD, Perera MA
OBJECTIVE: The goal of pharmacogenomics is the translation of genomic discoveries into individualized patient care. Recent advances in the means to survey human genetic variation are fundamentally transforming our understanding of the genetic basis of interindividual variation in therapeutic response. The goal of this study was to systematically evaluate high-throughput genotyping technologies for their ability to assay variation in pharmacogenetically important genes (pharmacogenes). These platforms are either being proposed for or are already being widely used for clinical implementation; therefore, knowledge of coverage of pharmacogenes on these platforms would serve to better evaluate current or proposed pharmacogenetic association studies. METHOD: Among the genes included in our study are drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, receptors, and drug targets, of interest to the entire pharmacogenetic community. We considered absolute and linkage disequilibrium (LD)-informed coverage, minor allele frequency spectrum, and functional annotation for a Caucasian population. We also examined the effect of LD, effect size, and cohort size on the power to detect single nucleotide polymorphism associations. RESULTS: In our analysis of 253 pharmacogenes, we found that no platform showed more than 85% coverage of these genes (after accounting for LD). Furthermore, the lack of coverage showed a marked increase at minor allele frequencies of less than 20%. Even after accounting for LD, only 30% of the missense polymorphisms (which are enriched for low-frequency alleles) were covered by HapMap, with still lower coverage on the other platforms. CONCLUSION: We have conducted the first systematic evaluation of the Axiom Genomic Database, Omni 2.5 M, and the Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters chip. This study is the first to utilize the 1000 Genomes Project to present a comprehensive evaluative framework. Our results provide a much-needed assessment of microarray-based genotyping and next-generation sequencing technologies' ability to survey fully the variation in genes of particular interest to the pharmacogenetics community. Our findings demonstrate the limitations of genome-wide methods and the challenges of implementing pharmacogenomic tests into the clinical context.
PMID: 22344246 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Merging pharmacometabolomics with pharmacogenomics using '1000 Genomes' single-nucleotide polymorphism imputation: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor response pharmacogenomics.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2012 Feb 8;
Authors: Abo R, Hebbring S, Ji Y, Zhu H, Zeng ZB, Batzler A, Jenkins GD, Biernacka J, Snyder K, Drews M, Fiehn O, Fridley B, Schaid D, Kamatani N, Nakamura Y, Kubo M, Mushiroda T, Kaddurah-Daouk R, Mrazek DA, Weinshilboum RM
OBJECTIVE: We set out to test the hypothesis that pharmacometabolomic data could be efficiently merged with pharmacogenomic data by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) imputation of metabolomic-derived pathway data on a 'scaffolding' of genome-wide association (GWAS) SNP data to broaden and accelerate 'pharmacometabolomics-informed pharmacogenomic' studies by eliminating the need for initial genotyping and by making broader SNP association testing possible. METHODS: We previously genotyped 131 tag SNPs for six genes encoding enzymes in the glycine synthesis and degradation pathway using DNA from 529 depressed patients treated with citalopram/escitalopram to pursue a glycine metabolomics 'signal' associated with selective serotonine reuptake inhibitor response. We identified a significant SNP in the glycine dehydrogenase gene. Subsequently, GWAS SNP data were generated for the same patients. In this study, we compared SNP imputation within 200 kb of these same six genes with the results of the previous tag SNP strategy as a rapid strategy for merging pharmacometabolomic and pharmacogenomic data. RESULTS: Imputed genotype data provided greater coverage and higher resolution than did tag SNP genotyping, with a higher average genotype concordance between genotyped and imputed SNP data for '1000 Genomes' (96.4%) than HapMap 2 (93.2%) imputation. Many low P-value SNPs with novel locations within genes were observed for imputed compared with tag SNPs, thus altering the focus for subsequent functional genomic studies. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the use of GWAS data to impute SNPs for genes in pathways identified by other 'omics' approaches makes it possible to rapidly and cost efficiently identify SNP markers to 'broaden' and accelerate pharmacogenomic studies.
PMID: 22322242 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A COMT gene haplotype associated with methamphetamine abuse.
Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2011 Sep 20;
Authors: Jugurnauth SK, Chen CK, Barnes MR, Li T, Lin SK, Liu HC, Collier DA, Breen G
INTRODUCTION: Methamphetamine (MAMP) use is highly associated with psychiatric disorders with 12-13% of MAMP-dependent patients experiencing psychotic symptoms. Substance abuse and dependence may primarily involve the mesolimbic pathway and dopaminergic brain structures. It follows that dopaminergic genes, particularly COMT (encoding catechol-O-methyltransferase) and its val158met polymorphism (rs4680), are natural candidates for susceptibility loci to addiction. We have previously found an association with rs4680 and MAMP addiction. METHODS: We present additional genotyping of rs165599 in 423 cases and 502 controls of a Taiwanese MAMP user sample. We carried out an in-silico evaluation of rs165599 for a possible impact on microRNA binding or UTR stability. We also carried out a review of transcript sequences across the COMT 3'UTR. RESULTS: Genotype counts were (cases/controls): AA 94/110, AG 198/210 and GG 93/109. There were no significant allele or genotype differences between cases and controls for rs165599. However, a haplotype main effect was detected using both rs4680 and rs165599 using the χ-test in UNPHASED. The global P-value was P=0.0044 with the effect appearing to derive from one haplotype that is underrepresented in cases: A/G for rs4680/rs165599 (haplotype P=0.001). rs165599 is a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the COMT 3' untranslated region (UTR), a noncoding transcript region subject to posttranscriptional down-regulation by mechanisms such as microRNA binding. A review of transcript sequences across the COMT 3'UTR found evidence to suggest antisense interference of COMT from the 3'UTR of the neighbouring 'Armadillo repeat gene deleted in velocardiofacial syndrome' gene.
PMID: 21934638 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]