TaqMan systems for genotyping of disease-related polymorphisms present in the gene encoding apolipoprotein E.
Clin Chem Lab Med. 2002 Nov;40(11):1123-31
Authors: Koch W, Ehrenhaft A, Griesser K, Pfeufer A, Müller J, Schömig A, Kastrati A
Polymorphisms of the gene encoding apolipoprotein E have been implicated in the pathogenesis of peripheral and coronary artery disease and neurodegenerative disorders such as sporadic and late-onset familial forms of Alzheimer's disease. We have developed TaqMan assay systems for the single nucleotide polymorphisms -219G/T, located in the promoter of the apolipoprotein E gene, 113G/C, present in the transcriptional enhancer element of intron 1, 334T/C, determining Cys or Arg as amino acid residue 112 of mature apolipoprotein E, and 472C/T, determining Arg or Cys as residue 158. The accuracy of genotype determination with the TaqMan systems was demonstrated by analyses with restriction endonucleases. We determined the genotypes of the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms in 2349 study subjects. The genotypes were distributed as: -219GG = 27.3%, -219GT = 49.1%, and -219TT = 23.6% (p = 0.435); 113GG = 41.3%, 113GC = 45.2%, and 113CC = 13.5% (p = 0.343); 334TT = 73.4%, 334TC = 24.7%, and 334CC = 1.9% (p = 0.539); 472CC = 86.3%, 472CT=12.8%, and 472TT= 0.9% ( p = 0.004) (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium estimates are given in parentheses). The allele combinations which define the three major isoforms of apolipoprotein E, namely apoE2, apoE3, and apoE4, had the following allele frequencies: 334T/472T (epsilon2; 112Cys/158Cys) = 7.3%, 334T/472C (epsilon3; 112Cys/158Arg) = 78.4%, and 334C/472C (epsilon4; 112Arg/158Arg) = 14.2%, respectively. ApoE genotypes were distributed as: epsilon2epsilon2 = 0.9%, epsilon2epsilon3 = 11.2%, epsilon2epsilon4 = 1.6%, epsilon3epsilon3 = 61.3%, epsilon3epsilon4 = 23.1%, and epsilon4epsilon4 = 1.9% (p = 0.014). The TaqMan assays allow for fast and sensitive genotyping and are especially suitable for studies including large numbers of participants.
PMID: 12521230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
CYP2D6 genotyping strategy based on gene copy number determination by TaqMan real-time PCR.
Hum Mutat. 2003 Dec;22(6):476-85
Authors: Schaeffeler E, Schwab M, Eichelbaum M, Zanger UM
The genetic polymorphism of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYP2D6, comprises at least 43 alleles giving rise to distinct drug metabolism phenotypes termed ultrarapid, extensive, intermediate, and poor metabolizers. As a consequence, drug side effects or lack of drug effect may occur if standard doses are applied. Genetic prediction of drug oxidation phenotype as a basis for dose selection requires analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms and of alleles with duplicated or deleted genes. Here we developed a novel method to determine the CYP2D6 gene dose per genome. A TaqMan real-time PCR assay to specifically amplify genomic CYP2D6 was established by using a specific set of amplification primers and probe, located in exon 9, which effectively prevent amplification of CYP2D7 and CYP2D8 pseudogenes. Quantitative CYP2D6 amplification data were normalized to albumin as an internal reference gene which was coamplified simultaneously in a single-tube biplex assay. The assay was validated with a selection of previously genotyped DNA samples containing none, one, two, or three CYP2D6 gene copies. The results were highly reproducible and closely matched the number of genes with no overlap between the groups. Analysis of DNA samples comprising all major alleles and genotypes revealed high sensitivity and specificity of the assay, as demonstrated by agreement of the determined gene dose with the presence of CYP2D6(*)2 x 2 (gene duplication) and CYP2D6(*) 5 (gene deletion) alleles. The predictability of the new strategy was systematically evaluated. The semiautomatic TaqMan assay allows high sample throughput and will be useful for pharmacogenetic studies and in the clinical setting.
PMID: 14635107 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Detection and genotyping of varicella-zoster virus by TaqMan allelic discrimination real-time PCR.
J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Apr;42(4):1409-13
Authors: Campsall PA, Au NH, Prendiville JS, Speert DP, Tan R, Thomas EE
A proportion of individuals vaccinated with live attenuated Oka varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine subsequently develop attenuated chicken pox and/or herpes zoster. To determine whether postvaccination varicella infections are caused by vaccine or wild-type virus, a simple method for distinguishing the vaccine strain from wild-type virus is required. We have developed a TaqMan real-time PCR assay to detect and differentiate wild-type virus from Oka vaccine strains of VZV. The assay utilized two fluorogenic, minor groove binding probes targeted to a single nucleotide polymorphism in open reading frame 62 that distinguishes the Oka vaccine from wild-type strains. VZV DNA could be genotyped and quantified within minutes of thermocycling completion due to real-time monitoring of PCR product formation and allelic discrimination analysis. The allelic discrimination assay was performed in parallel with two standard PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods on 136 clinical and laboratory VZV strains from Canada, Australia, and Japan. The TaqMan assay exhibited a genotyping accuracy of 100% and, when compared to both PCR-RFLP methods, was 100 times more sensitive. In addition, the method was technically simpler and more rapid. The TaqMan assay also allows for high-throughput genotyping, making it ideal for epidemiologic study of the live attenuated varicella vaccine.
PMID: 15070981 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Refinement of single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping methods on human genomic DNA: amplifluor allele-specific polymerase chain reaction versus ligation detection reaction-TaqMan.
Anal Biochem. 2004 Jul 15;330(2):288-97
Authors: Rickert AM, Borodina TA, Kuhn EJ, Lehrach H, Sperling S
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have proven to be powerful genetic markers for a variety of genetic applications, e.g., association studies leading to dissection of both monogenetic and complex diseases. However, no single SNP genotyping method has been broadly accepted. In the present study, we compared and refined two promising methods with potential for research and for diagnostic SNP genotyping: Amplifluor allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and ligation detection reaction (LDR)-TaqMan. The methods are based on allele-specific primer extension and allele-specific ligation, respectively. Since LDR-TaqMan had previously been tested on just Arabidopsis thaliana, we adjusted the method for the more complex human genome. Amplifluor allele-specific PCR has a single-step and closed-tube format, whereas the LDR-TaqMan assay comprises two simple steps. Contrary to the primer-extension-based method, the ligation-based method can be multiplexed. Refining the LDR-TaqMan technique, we successfully replaced a previously suggested three-step multiplexing procedure with a less laborious two-step approach. Comparing refined LDR-TaqMan with Amplifluor allele-specific PCR in a family-based study, both techniques appeared similar with respect to high robustness and accuracy. As both approaches utilize primers with common tails, all SNPs can be assayed with the same couple of fluorescence reporting reagents, ensuring low establishing and running expenses.
PMID: 15203335 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]