Genome-Wide Association Studies Identify Two Novel BMP15 Mutations Responsible for an Atypical Hyperprolificacy Phenotype in Sheep.
PLoS Genet. 2013 Apr;9(4):e1003482
Authors: Demars J, Fabre S, Sarry J, Rossetti R, Gilbert H, Persani L, Tosser-Klopp G, Mulsant P, Nowak Z, Drobik W, Martyniuk E, Bodin L
Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. Highly prolific ewes (cases) and normal prolific ewes (controls) from each breed were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip. In both populations, an X chromosome region, close to the BMP15 gene, harbored clusters of markers with suggestive evidence of association at significance levels between 1E(-05) and 1E(-07). The BMP15 candidate gene was then sequenced, and two novel non-conservative mutations called FecX(Gr) and FecX(O) were identified in the Grivette and Olkuska breeds, respectively. The two mutations were associated with the highly prolific phenotype (p FecX (Gr) = 5.98E(-06) and p FecX (O) = 2.55E(-08)). Homozygous ewes for the mutated allele showed a significantly increased prolificacy (FecX(Gr)/FecX(Gr) , LS = 2.50±0.65 versus FecX(+)/FecX(Gr) , LS = 1.93±0.42, p<1E(-03) and FecX(O)/FecX(O) , OR = 3.28±0.85 versus FecX(+)/FecX(O) , OR = 2.02±0.47, p<1E(-03)). Both mutations are located in very well conserved motifs of the protein and altered the BMP15 signaling activity in vitro using a BMP-responsive luciferase test in COV434 granulosa cells. Thus, we have identified two novel mutations in the BMP15 gene associated with increased LS and OR. Notably, homozygous FecX(Gr)/FecX(Gr) Grivette and homozygous FecX(O)/FecX(O) Olkuska ewes are hyperprolific in striking contrast with the sterility exhibited by all other known homozygous BMP15 mutations. Our results bring new insights into the key role played by the BMP15 protein in ovarian function and could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of women's fertility disorders.
PMID: 23637641 [PubMed - in process]
Genome-wide association study identifies Loci and candidate genes for body composition and meat quality traits in beijing-you chickens.
PLoS One. 2013;8(4):e61172
Authors: Liu R, Sun Y, Zhao G, Wang F, Wu D, Zheng M, Chen J, Zhang L, Hu Y, Wen J
Body composition and meat quality traits are important economic traits of chickens. The development of high-throughput genotyping platforms and relevant statistical methods have enabled genome-wide association studies in chickens. In order to identify molecular markers and candidate genes associated with body composition and meat quality traits, genome-wide association studies were conducted using the Illumina 60 K SNP Beadchip to genotype 724 Beijing-You chickens. For each bird, a total of 16 traits were measured, including carcass weight (CW), eviscerated weight (EW), dressing percentage, breast muscle weight (BrW) and percentage (BrP), thigh muscle weight and percentage, abdominal fat weight and percentage, dry matter and intramuscular fat contents of breast and thigh muscle, ultimate pH, and shear force of the pectoralis major muscle at 100 d of age. The SNPs that were significantly associated with the phenotypic traits were identified using both simple (GLM) and compressed mixed linear (MLM) models. For nine of ten body composition traits studied, SNPs showing genome wide significance (P<2.59E-6) have been identified. A consistent region on chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome 4 (GGA4), including seven significant SNPs and four candidate genes (LCORL, LAP3, LDB2, TAPT1), were found to be associated with CW and EW. Another 0.65 Mb region on GGA3 for BrW and BrP was identified. After measuring the mRNA content in beast muscle for five genes located in this region, the changes in GJA1 expression were found to be consistent with that of breast muscle weight across development. It is highly possible that GJA1 is a functional gene for breast muscle development in chickens. For meat quality traits, several SNPs reaching suggestive association were identified and possible candidate genes with their functions were discussed.
PMID: 23637794 [PubMed - in process]
A data-driven approach to preprocessing Illumina 450K methylation array data.
BMC Genomics. 2013 May 1;14(1):293
Authors: Pidsley R, Wong CC, Volta M, Lunnon K, Mill J, Schalkwyk LC
Background As the most stable and experimentally accessible epigenetic mark, DNA methylation is of great interest to the research community. The landscape of DNA methylation across tissues, through development and in disease pathogenesis is not yet well characterized. Thus there is a need for rapid and cost effective methods for assessing genome-wide levels of DNA methylation. The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 (450K) BeadChip is a very useful addition to the available methods for DNA methylation analysis but its complex design, incorporating two different assay methods, requires careful consideration. Accordingly, several normalization schemes have been published.We have taken advantage of known DNA methylation patterns associated with genomic imprinting and X-chromosome inactivation (XCI), in addition to the performance of SNP genotyping assays present on the array, to derive three independent metrics which we use to test alternative schemes of correction and normalization. These metrics also have potential utility as quality scores for datasets.Results The standard index of DNA methylation at any specific CpG site is ß = M/(M + U + 100) where M and U are methylated and unmethylated signal intensities, respectively. Betas (ßs) calculated from raw signal intensities (the default GenomeStudio behavior) perform well, but using 11 methylomic datasets we demonstrate that quantile normalization methods produce marked improvement, even in highly consistent data, by all three metrics. The commonly used procedure of normalizing betas is inferior to the separate normalization of M and U, and it is also advantageous to normalize Type I and Type II assays separately. More elaborate manipulation of quantiles proves to be counterproductive.Conclusions Careful selection of preprocessing steps can minimize variance and thus improve statistical power, especially for the detection of the small absolute DNA methylation changes likely associated with complex disease phenotypes. For the convenience of the research community we have created a user-friendly R software package called wateRmelon, downloadable from bioConductor, compatible with the existing methylumi, minfi and IMA packages, that allows others to utilize the same normalization methods and data quality tests on 450K data.
PMID: 23631413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Characterization of the metabochip in diverse populations from the international hapmap project in the epidemiologic architecture for genes linked to environment (eagle) project.
Pac Symp Biocomput. 2013;:188-99
Authors: Crawford DC, Goodloe R, Brown-Gentry K, Wilson S, Roberson J, Gillani NB, Ritchie MD, Dilks HH, Bush WS
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of genomic regions associated with common human disease and quantitative traits. A major research avenue for mature genotype-phenotype associations is the identification of the true risk or functional variant for downstream molecular studies or personalized medicine applications. As part of the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, we as Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) are fine-mapping GWAS-identified genomic regions for common diseases and quantitative traits. We are currently genotyping the Metabochip, a custom content BeadChip designed for fine-mapping metabolic diseases and traits, in∼15,000 DNA samples from patients of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry linked to de-identified electronic medical records from the Vanderbilt University biorepository (BioVU). As an initial study of quality control, we report here the genotyping data for 360 samples of European, African, Asian, and Mexican descent from the International HapMap Project. In addition to quality control metrics, we report the overall allele frequency distribution, overall population differentiation (as measured by FST), and linkage disequilibrium patterns for a select GWAS-identified region associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to illustrate the utility of the Metabochip for fine-mapping studies in the diverse populations expected in EAGLE, the PAGE study, and other efforts underway designed to characterize the complex genetic architecture underlying common human disease and quantitative traits.
PMID: 23424124 [PubMed - in process]
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