Genetic diversity in three groups of barley germplasm assessed by simple sequence repeats.
Genome. 2002 Dec;45(6):1095-106
Authors: Matus IA, Hayes PM
Genetic diversity can be measured by several criteria, including phenotype, pedigree, allelic diversity at marker loci, and allelic diversity at loci controlling phenotypes of interest. Abundance, high level of polymorphism, and ease of genotyping make simple sequence repeats (SSRs) an excellent molecular marker system for genetics diversity analyses. In this study, we used a set of mapped SSRs to survey three representative groups of barley germplasm: a sample of crop progenitor (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) accessions, a group of mapping population parents, and a group of varieties and elite breeding lines. The objectives were to determine (i) how informative SSRs are in these three sets of barley germplasm resources and (ii) the utility of SSRs in classifying barley germplasm. A total of 687 alleles were identified at 42 SSR loci in 147 genotypes. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 31, with an average of 16.3. Crop progenitors averaged 10.3 alleles per SSR locus, mapping population parents 8.3 alleles per SSR locus, and elite breeding lines 5.8 alleles per SSR locus. There were many exclusive (unique) alleles. The polymorphism information content values for the SSRs ranged from 0.08 to 0.94. The cluster analysis indicates a high level of diversity within the crop progenitors accessions and within the mapping population parents. It also shows a lower level of diversity within the elite breeding germplasm. Our results demonstrate that this set of SSRs was highly informative and was useful in generating a meaningful classification of the germplasm that we sampled. Our long-term goal is to determine the utility of molecular marker diversity as a tool for gene discovery and efficient use of germplasm.
PMID: 12502254 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Effectiveness of selective genotyping for detection of quantitative trait loci: an analysis of grain and malt quality traits in three barley populations.
Genome. 2002 Dec;45(6):1116-24
Authors: Ayoub M, Mather DE
Marker genotype data and grain and malt quality phenotype data from three barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping populations were used to investigate the feasibility of selective genotyping for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs). With selective genotyping, only individuals with high and low phenotypic values for the trait of interest are genotyped. Here, genotyping of 10 to 70% of each population (i.e., 5 to 35% in each tail of the phenotypic distribution) was considered. Genomic positions detected by selective genotyping were compared to QTL position estimates from interval mapping analysis using marker genotype data from the entire population. Selective genotyping reliably detected almost all of the mapped QTLs, often with only 10% of the population genotyped. Selective genotyping also detected spurious QTLs in regions of the genome where no significant QTL had been mapped. Even with additional genotyping to verify putative QTLs, the total genotyping effort for detection of QTLs for a single trait by selective genotyping was usually less than 30% of that required for conventional interval mapping. Simultaneous investigation of two or more traits by selective genotyping would require additional genotyping effort, but could still be worthwhile.
PMID: 12502257 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
AFLP data and the origins of domesticated crops.
Genome. 2003 Jun;46(3):448-53
Authors: Allaby RG, Brown TA
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) datasets have been used to construct neighbor-joining trees from which monophyletic origins for crops such as einkorn wheat, barley, and emmer wheat have been inferred. We simulated several different multiple domestication scenarios for an imaginary cereal crop and examined the resulting domesticated populations. The simulations showed that the population biology aspects of the domestication process can result in independently domesticated populations merging in such a way that a monophyletic origin is erroneously inferred when the resulting population is examined by AFLP genotyping a nd neighbor-joining analysis. The resultsbring into question the use of this method to infer the origins of real crops.
PMID: 12834061 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms in barley by tetra-primer ARMS-PCR.
Genome. 2004 Apr;47(2):414-20
Authors: Chiapparino E, Lee D, Donini P
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant form of DNA polymorphism. These polymorphisms can be used in plants as simple genetic markers for many breeding applications, for population studies, and for germplasm fingerprinting. The great increase in the available DNA sequences in the databases has made it possible to identify SNPs by "database mining", and the single most important factor preventing their widespread use appears to be the genotyping cost. Many genotyping platforms rely on the use of sophisticated, automated equipment coupled to costly chemistry and detection systems. A simple and economical method involving a single PCR is reported here for barley SNP genotyping. Using the tetra-primer ARMS-PCR procedure, we have been able to assay unambiguously five SNPs in a set of 132 varieties of cultivated barley. The results show the reliability of this technique and its potential for use in low- to moderate-throughput situations; the association of agronomically important traits is discussed.
PMID: 15060595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]