Frequency of MICA in all babies in southeast Sweden (ABIS) positive for high-risk HLA-DQ associated with type 1 diabetes.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1037:138-44
Authors: Gupta M, Ludvigsson J, Sanjeevi CB
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease known to occur in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to certain unknown environmental factors. HLA-DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 are established genetic markers for the disease. MHC class I chain-related gene-A (MICA) gene polymorphism has been proposed to be associated with T1DM. To identify the environmental factors and for implementing intervention trials to prevent T1DM, it is important to screen subjects at genetically increased risk for developing T1DM. The All Babies in Southeast Sweden (ABIS) study aims to assess the risk of future progression to T1DM in the general child population. In the present report, we studied the frequency of MICA alleles among newborn babies carrying high-risk HLA DQ2 or DQ8. Of 2821 newborns, we found 563 subjects positive for DQ2, 583 subjects positive for DQ8, 133 subjects positive for DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous), and 1013 subjects positive for either DQ2 or DQ8. Of these 1013 babies, we typed 499 babies for MICA. Frequency of MICA5 was 38% among DQ8+, 35% among for DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives, and 22.5% among DQ2+ babies. Frequency of MICA5.1 was 81% among DQ+, 62% among DQ8+, and 71% among DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives. Frequency of MICA6 was between 20% and 22% among the three groups. Frequency of MICA5/5.1 was 19% among DQ2-DQ8 (heterozygous) positives and between 12% and 13% among those positive for DQ2, DQ8, DQ2, or DQ8. The results from genetic typing in this study would be useful, in conjunction with results from autoantibody analysis that are prospectively being followed-up in all the babies, to develop an approach for identifying children at risk for developing T1DM. Inclusion of MICA typing in addition to HLA could be useful for screening of genetic markers associated with T1DM.
PMID: 15699508 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor genes in Latvian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and healthy controls.
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1037:161-9
Authors: Nikitina-Zake L, Rajalingham R, Rumba I, Sanjeevi CB
T1DM is very common in Sweden and is positively associated with HLA class II genes. Approximately 89% of the newly diagnosed patients carry the high-risk HLA DR4-DQ8 and DR3-DQ2. The remaining 11% develop T1DM without them. This can be due to involvement of other genes and environmental factors. Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are important in antiviral and antitumor immunity. They are implicated in the etiology of autoimmune T1DM. Human NK cells express killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) that belong to the polymorphic multigene family in chromosome 19q3.4. They modulate NK cell response by interacting with HLA class I. In addition, polymorphic MICA in HLA class I interacts with non-polymorphic NKG2D receptor on NK cells. We have studied, in addition to HLA-DR and -DQ, genes of the innate immune system MICA and KIR in Latvian patients (n = 98) with T1DM and controls (n = 100). They were genotyped using standard PCR-based typing methods. MICA allele 5 is positively associated with T1DM. KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 were both positively associated. Combined association of MICA4 and KIR2DL2 gave an odds ration (OR) of 26.7. However, the combined risk of KIR2DL2 and HLA class II genes, HLADR3 (OR = 73.4), DR4 (OR = 66.8), and DR3 and DR4 (OR = 88.3), was higher. The maximum risk was when KIR2DL2, MICA5, and DR3/DR4 were in combination. In conclusion, our results suggest that a balance between innate and acquired immunity is important, and an imbalance coud lead to T1DM.
PMID: 15699512 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
An autosomal genomic scan for loci linked to type 2 diabetes in northern Han Chinese.
J Mol Med. 2005 Mar;83(3):209-15
Authors: Zhao JY, Xiong MM, Huang W, Wang H, Zuo J, Wu GD, Chen Z, Qiang BQ, Zhang ML, Chen JL, Ding W, Yuan WT, Xu HY, Jin L, Li YX, Sun Q, Liu QY, Boerwinkle E, Fang FD
We report the results of a genome-wide scan conducted in 219 individuals from 34 large multiplex nuclear pedigrees from the northern Han Chinese population at an average resolution of about 10 cM. Nonparametric two-point and multipoint linkage analyses were performed to detect evidence of linkage with type 2 diabetes in this study. On chromosome 1 four regions showed evidence of linkage with type 2 diabetes in northern Han Chinese. Of these regions a marker D1S193 (73 cM) showed evidence of linkage (two-point nonparametric linkage 2.409), and another region (around 190 cM) was a replication of several other studies performed in different ethnic populations. Evidences of linkage have been confirmed by typing additional markers (average distance 1-5 cM) flanking these two positive regions on chromosome 1. We also found indication of linkage with type 2 diabetes on chromosomes 2, 10, 12, 18, 20, and 22 by two-point linkage analyses.
PMID: 15776287 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case-control observational study of 27 recent cases.
J Infect Dis. 2005 Apr 15;191(8):1350-60
Authors: Kontoyiannis DP, Lionakis MS, Lewis RE, Chamilos G, Healy M, Perego C, Safdar A, Kantarjian H, Champlin R, Walsh TJ, Raad II
Anecdotal evidence suggests a rise in zygomycosis in association with voriconazole (VRC) use in immunosuppressed patients.
PMID: 15776383 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]