A genome wide association study for backfat thickness in Italian Large White pigs highlights new regions affecting fat deposition including neuronal genes.
BMC Genomics. 2012;13:583
Authors: Fontanesi L, Schiavo G, Galimberti G, Calò DG, Scotti E, Martelli PL, Buttazzoni L, Casadio R, Russo V
BACKGROUND: Carcass fatness is an important trait in most pig breeding programs. Following market requests, breeding plans for fresh pork consumption are usually designed to reduce carcass fat content and increase lean meat deposition. However, the Italian pig industry is mainly devoted to the production of Protected Designation of Origin dry cured hams: pigs are slaughtered at around 160 kg of live weight and the breeding goal aims at maintaining fat coverage, measured as backfat thickness to avoid excessive desiccation of the hams. This objective has shaped the genetic pool of Italian heavy pig breeds for a few decades. In this study we applied a selective genotyping approach within a population of ~ 12,000 performance tested Italian Large White pigs. Within this population, we selectively genotyped 304 pigs with extreme and divergent backfat thickness estimated breeding value by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and performed a genome wide association study to identify loci associated to this trait.
RESULTS: We identified 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms with P≤5.0E-07 and additional 119 ones with 5.0E-07<P≤5.0E-05. These markers were located throughout all chromosomes. The largest numbers were found on porcine chromosomes 6 and 9 (n=15), 4 (n=13), and 7 (n=12) while the most significant marker was located on chromosome 18. Twenty-two single nucleotide polymorphisms were in intronic regions of genes already recognized by the Pre-Ensembl Sscrofa10.2 assembly. Gene Ontology analysis indicated an enrichment of Gene Ontology terms associated with nervous system development and regulation in concordance with results of large genome wide association studies for human obesity.
CONCLUSIONS: Further investigations are needed to evaluate the effects of the identified single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with backfat thickness on other traits as a pre-requisite for practical applications in breeding programs. Reported results could improve our understanding of the biology of fat metabolism and deposition that could also be relevant for other mammalian species including humans, confirming the role of neuronal genes on obesity.
PMID: 23153328 [PubMed - in process]
[Genome-wide selective sweep analysis on Large White and Tongcheng pigs].
Yi Chuan. 2012 Oct;34(10):1271-81
Authors: Li XL, Yang SB, Tang ZL, Li K, Liu B, Fan B
The production performance of pigs has been significantly improved due to long-term artificial selection, and the specific variation characterizations (selection signatures) emerged from the selected genome regions. Different types of breeds are subjected to different selection intensities and had different selection signatures. Selective sweep analysis is one of major methods to detect the selection signatures. In this study, based on the 60K BeadChip genotyping data of both commercial Large White (n=45) and local Tongcheng pigs (n=45), genetic differentiation coefficient Fst was applied to detect the selection signatures. Using gPLINK software to set quality control standards, a total of 34 304 SNPs were selected for statistical analysis. Fst values between two breeds were estimated with Genepop package and the average Fst value was 0.3209. Setting Fst>0.7036 (1% of total number of Fst values) as selection threshold, 344 SNPs were obtained and SNP location annotation indicated that there were 79 candidate genes (Sus scrofa Build 9). Furthermore, network analysis was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and the preliminary results suggested that most genes were involved in growth, reproduction, and immune response, such as NCOA6, ERBB4, RUNX2, and APOB genes. The findings from this study will contribute to further identification of candidate genes and causal mutations implying for meat production and disease resistance in pig.
PMID: 23099783 [PubMed - in process]
Prediction of breed composition in an admixed cattle population.
Anim Genet. 2012 Dec;43(6):696-703
Authors: Frkonja A, Gredler B, Schnyder U, Curik I, Sölkner J
Swiss Fleckvieh was established in 1970 as a composite of Simmental (SI) and Red Holstein Friesian (RHF) cattle. Breed composition is currently reported based on pedigree information. Information on a large number of molecular markers potentially provides more accurate information. For the analysis, we used Illumina BovineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip data for 90 pure SI, 100 pure RHF and 305 admixed bulls. The scope of the study was to compare the performance of hidden Markov models, as implemented in structure software, with methods conventionally used in genomic selection [BayesB, partial least squares regression (PLSR), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) variable selection)] for predicting breed composition. We checked the performance of algorithms for a set of 40 492 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), subsets of evenly distributed SNPs and subsets with different allele frequencies in the pure populations, using F(ST) as an indicator. Key results are correlations of admixture levels estimated with the various algorithms with admixture based on pedigree information. For the full set, PLSR, BayesB and structure performed in a very similar manner (correlations of 0.97), whereas the correlation of LASSO and pedigree admixture was lower (0.93). With decreasing number of SNPs, correlations decreased substantially only for 5% or 1% of all SNPs. With SNPs chosen according to F(ST) , results were similar to results obtained with the full set. Only when using 96 and 48 SNPs with the highest F(ST) , correlations dropped to 0.92 and 0.90 respectively. Reducing the number of pure animals in training sets to 50, 20 and 10 each did not cause a drop in the correlation with pedigree admixture.
PMID: 23061480 [PubMed - in process]
Genomic imputation and evaluation using high-density Holstein genotypes.
J Dairy Sci. 2012 Oct 10;
Authors: Vanraden PM, Null DJ, Sargolzaei M, Wiggans GR, Tooker ME, Cole JB, Sonstegard TS, Connor EE, Winters M, van Kaam JB, Valentini A, Van Doormaal BJ, Faust MA, Doak GA
Genomic evaluations for 161,341 Holsteins were computed by using 311,725 of 777,962 markers on the Illumina BovineHD Genotyping BeadChip (HD). Initial edits with 1,741 HD genotypes from 5 breeds revealed that 636,967 markers were usable but that half were redundant. Holstein genotypes were from 1,510 animals with HD markers, 82,358 animals with 45,187 (50K) markers, 1,797 animals with 8,031 (8K) markers, 20,177 animals with 6,836 (6K) markers, 52,270 animals with 2,683 (3K) markers, and 3,229 nongenotyped dams (0K) with >90% of haplotypes imputable because they had 4 or more genotyped progeny. The Holstein HD genotypes were from 1,142 US, Canadian, British, and Italian sires, 196 other sires, 138 cows in a US Department of Agriculture research herd (Beltsville, MD), and 34 other females. Percentages of correctly imputed genotypes were tested by applying the programs findhap and FImpute to a simulated chromosome for an earlier population that had only 1,112 animals with HD genotypes and none with 8K genotypes. For each chip, 1% of the genotypes were missing and 0.02% were incorrect initially. After imputation of missing markers with findhap, percentages of genotypes correct were 99.9% from HD, 99.0% from 50K, 94.6% from 6K, 90.5% from 3K, and 93.5% from 0K. With FImpute, 99.96% were correct from HD, 99.3% from 50K, 94.7% from 6K, 91.1% from 3K, and 95.1% from 0K genotypes. Accuracy for the 3K and 6K genotypes further improved by approximately 2 percentage points if imputed first to 50K and then to HD instead of imputing all genotypes directly to HD. Evaluations were tested by using imputed actual genotypes and August 2008 phenotypes to predict deregressed evaluations of US bulls proven after August 2008. For 28 traits tested, the estimated genomic reliability averaged 61.1% when using 311,725 markers vs. 60.7% when using 45,187 markers vs. 29.6% from the traditional parent average. Squared correlations with future data were slightly greater for 16 traits and slightly less for 12 with HD than with 50K evaluations. The observed 0.4 percentage point average increase in reliability was less favorable than the 0.9 expected from simulation but was similar to actual gains from other HD studies. The largest HD and 50K marker effects were often located at very similar positions. The single-breed evaluation tested here and previous single-breed or multibreed evaluations have not produced large gains. Increasing the number of HD genotypes used for imputation above 1,074 did not improve the reliability of Holstein genomic evaluations.
PMID: 23063157 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]