Serum microRNAs; miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers for HCV-positive cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

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Serum microRNAs; miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers for HCV-positive cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep. 2014 Nov 13;

Authors: Oksuz Z, Serin MS, Kaplan E, Dogen A, Tezcan S, Aslan G, Emekdas G, Sezgin O, Altintas E, Tiftik EN

Abstract
Recently, serum miRNAs have been evolved as possible biomarkers for different diseases including hepatocellular carcinoma and other types of cancers. Investigating certain serum miRNAs as novel non-invasive markers for early detection of HCV-positive cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The expression profiles of 58 miRNA were analyzed in patient's plasma of chronic hepatitis C (CHC), HCV-positive cirrhosis and HCV-positive HCC and compared with control group samples. Totally 94 plasma samples; 64 patient plasma (26 CHC, 30 HCV-positive cirrhosis, 8 HCV-positive HCC) and 28 control group plasma, were included. The expression profiles of 58 miRNAs were detected for all patient and control group plasma samples by qRT-PCR using BioMarkTM 96.96 Dynamic Array (Fluidigm Corporation) system. In CHC group, expression profiles of miR-30a-5p, miR-30c-5p, miR-206 and miR-302c-3p were found significantly deregulated (p < 0.05) when compared versus control group. In HCV-positive cirrhosis group, expression profiles of miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p, miR-17-5p, miR-130a-3p, miR-93-5p, miR-302c-5p and miR-223-3p were found significantly deregulated (p < 0.05). In HCV-positive HCC group, expression profiles of miR-17-5p, miR-223-3p and miR-24-3p were found significant (p < 0.05). When all groups were compared versus control, miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p were found significantly deregulated for cirrhosis and HCC. These results imply that miR-30c-5p, miR-223-3p, miR-302c-3p and miR-17-5p could be used as novel non-invasive biomarkers of HCV-positive HCC in very early, even at cirrhosis stage of liver disease.

PMID: 25391771 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The brown coat colour of Coppernecked goats is associated with a non-synonymous variant at the TYRP1 locus on chromosome 8.

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The brown coat colour of Coppernecked goats is associated with a non-synonymous variant at the TYRP1 locus on chromosome 8.

Anim Genet. 2014 Nov 13;

Authors: Becker D, Otto M, Ammann P, Keller I, Drögemüller C, Leeb T

Abstract
The recent development of a goat SNP genotyping microarray enables genome-wide association studies in this important livestock species. We investigated the genetic basis of the black and brown coat colour in Valais Blacknecked and Coppernecked goats. A genome-wide association analysis using goat SNP50 BeadChip genotypes of 22 cases and 23 controls allowed us to map the locus for the brown coat colour to goat chromosome 8. The TYRP1 gene is located within the associated chromosomal region, and TYRP1 variants cause similar coat colour phenotypes in different species. We thus considered TYRP1 as a strong positional and functional candidate. We resequenced the caprine TYRP1 gene by Sanger and Illumina sequencing and identified two non-synonymous variants, p.Ile478Thr and p.Gly496Asp, that might have a functional impact on the TYRP1 protein. However, based on the obtained pedigree and genotype data, the brown coat colour in these goats is not due to a single recessive loss-of-function allele. Surprisingly, the genotype distribution and the pedigree data suggest that the (496) Asp allele might possibly act in a dominant manner. The (496) Asp allele was present in 77 of 81 investigated Coppernecked goats and did not occur in black goats. This strongly suggests heterogeneity underlying the brown coat colour in Coppernecked goats. Functional experiments or targeted matings will be required to verify the unexpected preliminary findings.

PMID: 25392961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

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High-resolution genetic maps of Eucalyptus improve Eucalyptus grandis genome assembly.

New Phytol. 2014 Nov 10;

Authors: Bartholomé J, Mandrou E, Mabiala A, Jenkins J, Nabihoudine I, Klopp C, Schmutz J, Plomion C, Gion JM

Abstract
Genetic maps are key tools in genetic research as they constitute the framework for many applications, such as quantitative trait locus analysis, and support the assembly of genome sequences. The resequencing of the two parents of a cross between Eucalyptus urophylla and Eucalyptus grandis was used to design a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array of 6000 markers evenly distributed along the E. grandis genome. The genotyping of 1025 offspring enabled the construction of two high-resolution genetic maps containing 1832 and 1773 markers with an average marker interval of 0.45 and 0.5 cM for E. grandis and E. urophylla, respectively. The comparison between genetic maps and the reference genome highlighted 85% of collinear regions. A total of 43 noncollinear regions and 13 nonsynthetic regions were detected and corrected in the new genome assembly. This improved version contains 4943 scaffolds totalling 691.3 Mb of which 88.6% were captured by the 11 chromosomes. The mapping data were also used to investigate the effect of population size and number of markers on linkage mapping accuracy. This study provides the most reliable linkage maps for Eucalyptus and version 2.0 of the E. grandis genome.

PMID: 25385325 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Three gangliogliomas: Results of GTG-banding, SKY, genome-wide high resolution SNP-array, gene expression and review of the literature.

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Three gangliogliomas: Results of GTG-banding, SKY, genome-wide high resolution SNP-array, gene expression and review of the literature.

Neuropathology. 2014 Nov 6;

Authors: Xu LX, Holland H, Kirsten H, Ahnert P, Krupp W, Bauer M, Schober R, Mueller W, Fritzsch D, Meixensberger J, Koschny R

Abstract
According to the World Health Organization gangliogliomas are classified as well-differentiated and slowly growing neuroepithelial tumors, composed of neoplastic mature ganglion and glial cells. It is the most frequent tumor entity observed in patients with long-term epilepsy. Comprehensive cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic data including high-resolution genomic profiling (single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-array) of gangliogliomas are scarce but necessary for a better oncological understanding of this tumor entity. For a detailed characterization at the single cell and cell population levels, we analyzed genomic alterations of three gangliogliomas using trypsin-Giemsa banding (GTG-banding) and by spectral karyotyping (SKY) in combination with SNP-array and gene expression array experiments. By GTG and SKY, we could confirm frequently detected chromosomal aberrations (losses within chromosomes 10, 13 and 22; gains within chromosomes 5, 7, 8 and 12), and identify so far unknown genetic aberrations like the unbalanced non-reciprocal translocation t(1;18)(q21;q21). Interestingly, we report on the second so far detected ganglioglioma with ring chromosome 1. Analyses of SNP-array data from two of the tumors and respective germline DNA (peripheral blood) identified few small gains and losses and a number of copy-neutral regions with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in germline and in tumor tissue. In comparison to germline DNA, tumor tissues did not show substantial regions with significant loss or gain or with newly developed LOH. Gene expression analyses of tumor-specific genes revealed similarities in the profile of the analyzed samples regarding different relevant pathways. Taken together, we describe overlapping but also distinct and novel genetic aberrations of three gangliogliomas.

PMID: 25376146 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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