Correlation between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene polymorphisms and liver cirrhosis in a chinese han population with chronic hepatitis B.

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Correlation between patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 gene polymorphisms and liver cirrhosis in a chinese han population with chronic hepatitis B.

Hepat Mon. 2014 Aug;14(8):e18943

Authors: Tong J, Guo J, Hu J, Hou S, Zhang Y, Li Q

Abstract
BACKGROUND: A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) genes (rs738409) is associated with the severity of fibrosis and cirrhosis in patients with fatty liver disease. However, in a small group of Italian patients, there was no significant correlation between the rs738409 SNP and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection-associated liver cirrhosis.
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate whether PNPLA3 polymorphisms are a risk factor for liver cirrhosis in a Chinese Han population with chronic hepatitis B (CHB).
PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 344 Chinese Han patients with CHB, among which 203 presented with liver cirrhosis (LC group) and 141 had no sign of liver cirrhosis (CHB group). TaqMan genotyping assay was used to investigate the association of two PNPLA3 SNPs (rs738409 and rs2281135) with the risk of liver cirrhosis.
RESULTS: The allele and genotype distributions of PNPLA3 rs738409 and rs2281135 were not significantly different between the CHB and LC groups. After segregation on the basis of sex, no significant correlation between PNPLA3 (rs738409 and rs2281135) genotypes/alleles and liver cirrhosis was detected. Moreover, none of the haplotypes in PNPLA3 (rs738409 and rs2281135) was found to be statistically different between the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed no association between PNPLA3 polymorphisms (rs738409 and rs2281135) and the susceptibility to HBV-related liver cirrhosis in a Chinese Han population.

PMID: 25337145 [PubMed]

The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals.

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The common functional FKBP5 variant rs1360780 is associated with altered cognitive function in aged individuals.

Sci Rep. 2014;4:6696

Authors: Fujii T, Ota M, Hori H, Hattori K, Teraishi T, Matsuo J, Kinoshita Y, Ishida I, Nagashima A, Kunugi H

Abstract
The common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1360780 (C/T) of the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene has been reported to be associated with an altered response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In the present study, we examined whether this SNP is associated with cognitive function in a non-clinical population. The full versions of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised were administered to 742 and 627 Japanese individuals, respectively, followed by genotyping of rs1360780 by the TaqMan 5'-exonuclease allelic discrimination assay. For both cognitive tests, we found significantly poorer attention/concentration (working memory) in aged (>50 years old) individuals carrying the T allele compared with their counterparts. This finding accords with an altered HPA axis and vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders.

PMID: 25331639 [PubMed - in process]

Genome-Wide Association Studies Using Haplotypes and Individual SNPs in Simmental Cattle.

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Genome-Wide Association Studies Using Haplotypes and Individual SNPs in Simmental Cattle.

PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e109330

Authors: Wu Y, Fan H, Wang Y, Zhang L, Gao X, Chen Y, Li J, Ren H, Gao H

Abstract
Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping technologies have provided the opportunity to map genes using associations between complex traits and markers. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on either a single marker or haplotype have identified genetic variants and underlying genetic mechanisms of quantitative traits. Prompted by the achievements of studies examining economic traits in cattle and to verify the consistency of these two methods using real data, the current study was conducted to construct the haplotype structure in the bovine genome and to detect relevant genes genuinely affecting a carcass trait and a meat quality trait. Using the Illumina BovineHD BeadChip, 942 young bulls with genotyping data were introduced as a reference population to identify the genes in the beef cattle genome significantly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels. In total, 92,553 haplotype blocks were detected in the genome. The regions of high linkage disequilibrium extended up to approximately 200 kb, and the size of haplotype blocks ranged from 22 bp to 199,266 bp. Additionally, the individual SNP analysis and the haplotype-based analysis detected similar regions and common SNPs for these two representative traits. A total of 12 and 7 SNPs in the bovine genome were significantly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels, respectively. By comparison, 4 and 5 haplotype blocks containing the majority of significant SNPs were strongly associated with foreshank weight and triglyceride levels, respectively. In addition, 36 SNPs with high linkage disequilibrium were detected in the GNAQ gene, a potential hotspot that may play a crucial role for regulating carcass trait components.

PMID: 25330174 [PubMed - in process]

Identifying rare variants for genetic risk through a combined pedigree and phenotype approach: application to suicide and asthma.

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Identifying rare variants for genetic risk through a combined pedigree and phenotype approach: application to suicide and asthma.

Transl Psychiatry. 2014;4:e471

Authors: Darlington TM, Pimentel R, Smith K, Bakian AV, Jerominski L, Cardon J, Camp NJ, Callor WB, Grey T, Singleton M, Yandell M, Renshaw PF, Yurgelun-Todd DA, Gray D, Coon H

Abstract
Suicidal behavior is a complex disorder, with evidence for genetic risk independent of other genetic risk factors including psychiatric disorders. Since 1996, over 3000 DNA samples from Utah suicide decedents have been collected and banked for research use through the Utah Medical Examiner. In addition, over 12 000 Utah suicides were identified through examination of death certificates back to 1904. By linking this data with the Utah Population Database, we have identified multiple extended pedigrees with increased risk for suicide completion. A number of medical conditions co-occur with suicide, including asthma, and this study was undertaken to identify genetic risk common to asthma and suicide. This study tests the hypothesis that a particular comorbid condition may identify a more homogeneous genetic subgroup, facilitating the identification of specific genetic risk factors in that group. From pedigrees at increased risk for suicide, we identified three pedigrees also at significantly increased familial risk for asthma. Five suicide decedents from each of these pedigrees, plus an additional three decedents not from these pedigrees with diagnosed asthma, and 10 decedents with close relatives with asthma were genotyped. Results were compared with 183 publicly available unaffected control exomes from 1000 Genomes and CEPH (Centre d'etude du polymorphisme humain) samples genotyped on the same platform. A further 432 suicide decedents were also genotyped as non-asthma suicide controls. Genotyping was done using the Infinium HumanExome BeadChip. For analysis, we used the pedigree extension of Variant Annotation, Analysis and Search Tool (pVAAST) to calculate the disease burden of each gene. The Phenotype Driven Variant Ontological Re-ranking tool (Phevor) then re-ranked our pVAAST results in context of the phenotype. Using asthma as a seed phenotype, Phevor traversed biomedical ontologies and identified genes with similar biological properties to those known to result in asthma. Our top associated genes included those related to neurodevelopment or neural signaling (brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neutral sphingomyelinase 2 (SMPD2), homeobox b2 (HOXB2), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM2), heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A0 (HNRNPA0)), inflammation (free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2)) and inflammation with additional evidence of neuronal involvement (oxidized low density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)). Of particular interest, BDNF has been previously implicated in both psychiatric disorders and asthma. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining pedigree and co-occurring phenotypes to identify rare variants associated with suicide risk in conjunction with specific co-occurring conditions.

PMID: 25335167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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