Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

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Breed differences in development of anti-insulin antibodies in diabetic dogs and investigation of the role of dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes.

Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2015 Aug 2;

Authors: Holder AL, Kennedy LJ, Ollier WE, Catchpole B

Abstract
Administration of insulin for treatment of diabetes mellitus in dogs can stimulate an immune response, with a proportion of animals developing anti-insulin antibodies (AIA). For an IgG antibody response to occur, this would require B cell presentation of insulin peptides by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, encoded by dog leukocyte antigen (DLA) genes, in order to receive T-cell help for class switching. DLA genes are highly polymorphic in the dog population and vary from breed to breed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate AIA reactivity in diabetic dogs of different breeds and to investigate whether DLA genes influence AIA status. Indirect ELISA was used to determine serological reactivity to insulin in diabetic dogs, treated with either a porcine or bovine insulin preparation. DLA haplotypes for diabetic dogs were determined by sequence-based typing of DLA-DRB1, -DQA1 and -DQB1 loci. Significantly greater insulin reactivity was seen in treated diabetic dogs (n=942) compared with non-diabetic dogs (n=100). Relatively few newly diagnosed diabetic dogs (3/109) were found to be AIA positive, although this provides evidence that insulin autoantibodies might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease in some cases. Of the diabetic dogs treated with a bovine insulin preparation, 52.3% (182/348) were AIA positive, compared with 12.6% (75/594) of dogs treated with a porcine insulin preparation, suggesting that bovine insulin is more immunogenic. Breeds such as dachshund, Cairn terrier, miniature schnauzer and Tibetan terrier were more likely to develop AIA, whereas cocker spaniels were less likely to develop AIA, compared with crossbreed dogs. In diabetic dogs, DLA haplotype DRB1*0015--DQA1*006--DQB1*023 was associated with being AIA positive, whereas the haplotype DLA-DRB1*006--DQA1*005--DQB1*007 showed an association with being AIA negative. These research findings suggest that DLA genes influence AIA responses in treated diabetic dogs.

PMID: 26272177 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in dystrobrevin binding protein 1 gene with schizophrenia in a Malaysian population.

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Genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in dystrobrevin binding protein 1 gene with schizophrenia in a Malaysian population.

Genet Mol Biol. 2015 May;38(2):138-46

Authors: Tan GK, Tee SF, Tang PY

Abstract
Dystrobrevin binding protein 1 (DTNBP1) gene is pivotal in regulating the glutamatergic system. Genetic variants of the DTNBP1 affect cognition and thus may be particularly relevant to schizophrenia. We therefore evaluated the association of six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with schizophrenia in a Malaysian population (171 cases; 171 controls). Associations between these six SNPs and schizophrenia were tested in two stages. Association signals with p < 0.05 and minor allele frequency > 0.05 in stage 1 were followed by genotyping the SNPs in a replication phase (stage 2). Genotyping was performed with sequenced specific primer (PCR-SSP) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). In our sample, we found significant associations between rs2619522 (allele p = 0.002, OR = 1.902, 95%CI = 1.266 - 2.859; genotype p = 0.002) and rs2619528 (allele p = 0.008, OR = 1.606, 95%CI = 1.130 - 2.281; genotype p = 6.18 × 10(-5)) and schizophrenia. Given that these two SNPs may be associated with the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, further studies on the other DTNBP1 variants are warranted.

PMID: 26273215 [PubMed]

Mouse double minute-2 homolog (MDM2)-rs2279744 polymorphism associated with lung cancer risk in a Northeastern Chinese population.

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Mouse double minute-2 homolog (MDM2)-rs2279744 polymorphism associated with lung cancer risk in a Northeastern Chinese population.

Thorac Cancer. 2015 Jan;6(1):91-6

Authors: Wang X, Jin L, Cui J, Ma K, Chen X, Li W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Altered expression or function of mouse double minute-2 (MDM2) protein could contribute to lung carcinogenesis; thus, this study investigated MDM2-rs2279744 polymorphism together with other epidemiologic factors for their association with lung cancer risk.
METHODS: A total of 500 lung cancer patients and 500 age and gender-matched healthy controls living in Northeastern China were recruited for genotyping of MDM2-rs2279744. Clinicopathological data was collected and subjected to univariate and multivariate analyses.
RESULTS: In univariate analysis, the MDM2-rs2279744 G/G genotype versus T/T + T/G genotypes showed a tendency toward a higher incidence of lung cancer in the recessive model (P = 0.043). However, there were no significant differences when it was analyzed by the dominant, additive, or multiplicative models. A significantly increased lung cancer risk was observed associated with lower education level, lower body mass index, cancer family history, prior diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumonia, exposure to pesticide or gasoline/diesel, tobacco smoking, and heavy cooking emissions when assessed by multivariate analyses. Moreover, MDM2-rs2279744 was still a significant risk factor even after incorporating environmental and lifestyle factors. However, there was no association between MDM2-rs2279744 and other factors.
CONCLUSIONS: The MDM2-rs2279744 G/G genotype was associated with a higher lung cancer risk, even after incorporating other epidemiologic factors.

PMID: 26273341 [PubMed]

Development and analysis of a 20K SNP array for potato (Solanum tuberosum): an insight into the breeding history.

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Development and analysis of a 20K SNP array for potato (Solanum tuberosum): an insight into the breeding history.

Theor Appl Genet. 2015 Aug 12;

Authors: Vos PG, Uitdewilligen JG, Voorrips RE, Visser RG, van Eck HJ

Abstract
KEY MESSAGE: A 20K SNP array was developed and a comprehensive set of tetraploid cultivar was genotyped. This allowed us to identify footprints of the breeding history in contemporary breeding material such as identification of introgression segments, selection and founder signatures. A non-redundant subset of 15,138 previously identified SNPs and 4454 SNPs originating from the SolCAP project were combined into a 20k Infinium SNP array for genotyping a total of 569 potato genotypes. In this study we describe how this SNP array (encoded SolSTW array) was designed and analysed with fitTetra, software designed for autotetraploids. Genotypes from different countries and market segments, complemented with historic cultivars and important progenitors, were genotyped. This comprehensive set of genotypes combined with the deliberate inclusion of a large proportion of SNPs with a low minor allele frequency allowed us to distinguish genetic variation contributed by introgression breeding. This "new" (post 1945) genetic variation is located on specific chromosomal regions and enables the identification of SNP markers linked to R-genes. In addition, when the genetic composition of modern cultivars was compared with cultivars released before 1945, it appears that 96 % of the genetic variants present in those ancestral cultivars remains polymorphic in modern cultivars. Hence, genetic erosion is almost absent in potato. Finally, we studied population genetic processes shaping the genetic composition of the modern European potato including drift, selection and founder effects. This resulted in the identification of major founders contributing to contemporary germplasm.

PMID: 26263902 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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