Association of the single-nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype of the complement receptor 1 gene with malaria.

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Association of the single-nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype of the complement receptor 1 gene with malaria.

Yonsei Med J. 2015 Mar 1;56(2):332-9

Authors: Lan Y, Wei CD, Chen WC, Wang JL, Wang CF, Pan GG, Wei YS, Nong le G

Abstract
PURPOSE: Although the polymorphisms of erythrocyte complement receptor type 1 (CR1) in patients with malaria have been extensively studied, a question of whether the polymorphisms of CR1 are associated with severe malaria remains controversial. Furthermore, no study has examined the association of CR1 polymorphisms with malaria in Chinese population. Therefore, we investigated the relationship of CR1 gene polymorphism and malaria in Chinese population.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed polymorphisms of CR1 gene rs2274567 G/A, rs4844600 G/A, and rs2296160 C/T in 509 patients with malaria and 503 controls, using the Taqman genotyping assay and PCR-direct sequencing.
RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the genotype, allele and haplotype frequencies of CR1 gene rs2274567 G/A, rs4844600 G/A, and rs2296160 C/T polymorphisms between patients with malaria and controls. Furthermore, there was no association of polymorphisms in the CR1 gene with the severity of malaria in Chinese population.
CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that CR1 gene rs2274567 G/A, rs4844600 G/A, and rs2296160 C/T polymorphisms may not be involved in susceptibility to malaria in Chinese population.

PMID: 25683978 [PubMed - in process]

Association Study of the SLC6A3 VNTR (DAT) and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A Polymorphisms with Alcohol Dependence in a Population from Northeastern Brazil.

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Association Study of the SLC6A3 VNTR (DAT) and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A Polymorphisms with Alcohol Dependence in a Population from Northeastern Brazil.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2015 Feb;39(2):205-11

Authors: Vasconcelos AC, Neto Ede S, Pinto GR, Yoshioka FK, Motta FJ, Vasconcelos DF, Canalle R

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex psychiatric disorder, affecting 5.4% of the general population lifetime, characterized by excessive alcohol consumption influenced by environmental risk factors and genetic factors. Genetic alterations in dopaminergic system are involved in the treatment and etiology of AD. The aim of this search was to test the association of the SLC6A3 40 bp-VNTR and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), a transporter and receptor of the dopaminergic system, with AD through a study in a population of northeastern Brazil.
METHODS: The study design was a case-control that included 227 males of northeastern Brazil (113 alcoholics and 114 controls). Alcoholics were classified according to the DSM-IV criteria for AD and controls were subjects who had nonalcohol problems or who never drank. Genotyping was detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for SLC6A3 40 bp-VNTR and RFLP-PCR for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A, and subsequent electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel. The distribution of allele and genotype frequencies and association of polymorphisms with AD were assessed by chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95% and significance p < 0.05. Data were analyzed on BioEstat 5.3 software.
RESULTS: The SLC6A3 40 bp-VNTR was associated with AD, allelic, and genotypic frequencies were significantly different, respectively (A9 vs. A10: OR = 1.88; p = 0.01; A9/A9 vs. A10/A10: OR = 6.25; p = 0.02; A9/A9 vs. A9/A10 + A10A10: OR = 5.44; p = 0.03). However, there was no statistically significant difference when the allelic (p = 0.10) and genotypic (p > 0.05) frequencies for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A were compared.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that A9 allele and A9/A9 genotype of the SLC6A3 40 bp-VNTR are involved in the vulnerability to AD in the population studied. However, for the DRD2/ANKK1 SNP does not present contributions to the development of AD.

PMID: 25684044 [PubMed - in process]

A flexible multi-species genome-wide 60K SNP chip developed from pooled resequencing of 240 Eucalyptus tree genomes across 12 species.

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A flexible multi-species genome-wide 60K SNP chip developed from pooled resequencing of 240 Eucalyptus tree genomes across 12 species.

New Phytol. 2015 Feb 13;

Authors: Silva-Junior OB, Faria DA, Grattapaglia D

Abstract
We used whole genome resequencing of pooled individuals to develop a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip for Eucalyptus. Genomes of 240 trees of 12 species were sequenced at 3.5× each, and 46 997 586 raw SNP variants were subject to multivariable filtering metrics toward a multispecies, genome-wide distributed chip content. Of the 60 904 SNPs on the chip, 59 222 were genotyped and 51 204 were polymorphic across 14 Eucalyptus species, providing a 96% genome-wide coverage with 1 SNP/12-20 kb, and 47 069 SNPs at ≤ 10 kb from 30 444 of the 33 917 genes in the Eucalyptus genome. Given the EUChip60K multi-species genotyping flexibility, we show that both the sample size and taxonomic composition of cluster files impact heterozygous call specificity and sensitivity by benchmarking against 'gold standard' genotypes derived from deeply sequenced individual tree genomes. Thousands of SNPs were shared across species, likely representing ancient variants arisen before the split of these taxa, hinting to a recent eucalypt radiation. We show that the variable SNP filtering constraints allowed coverage of the entire site frequency spectrum, mitigating SNP ascertainment bias. The EUChip60K represents an outstanding tool with which to address population genomics questions in Eucalyptus and to empower genomic selection, GWAS and the broader study of complex trait variation in eucalypts.

PMID: 25684350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances.

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Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances.

World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2015 Feb 15;6(1):13-22

Authors: Cioffi M, Rosa AD, Serao R, Picone I, Vietri MT

Abstract
Ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) in man. Despite some common features, these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition, risk factors and clinical, endoscopic and histological characteristics. The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown, but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immune response directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora. Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD. Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations. The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed. These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications. The ability to determine the type, severity, prognosis and response to therapy of UC, using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers. We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC, with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter, we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future: (1) serum markers of acute phase response: The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count, leukocyte count, and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations; (2) serologic markers/antibodies: In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies. In UC, the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response; and (3) future biomarkers: The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future. The progress of molecular biology tools (microarrays, proteomics and nanotechnology) have revolutionised the field of the biomarker discovery. The advances in bioinformatics coupled with cross-disciplinary collaborations have greatly enhanced our ability to retrieve, characterize and analyse large amounts of data generated by the technological advances. The techniques available for biomarkers development are genomics (single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, pharmacogenetics and gene expression analyses) and proteomics. In the future, the addition of new serological markers will add significant benefit. Correlating serologic markers with genotypes and clinical phenotypes should enhance our understanding of pathophysiology of UC.

PMID: 25685607 [PubMed]

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