Construction of a radiation hybrid panel and the first yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) radiation hybrid map using a nanofluidic dynamic array.
BMC Genomics. 2014 Feb 27;15(1):165
Authors: Aoki JY, Kai W, Kawabata Y, Ozaki A, Yoshida K, Tsuzaki T, Fuji K, Koyama T, Sakamoto T, Araki K
BACKGROUND: Yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) are an economically important species in Japan. However, there are currently no methods for captive breeding and early rearing for yellowtail. Thus, the commercial cultivation of this species is reliant upon the capture of wild immature fish. Given this, there is a need to develop captive breeding techniques to reduce pressure on wild stocks and facilitate the sustainable development of yellowtail aquaculture. We constructed a whole genome radiation hybrid (RH) panel for yellowtail gene mapping and developed a framework physical map using a nanofluidic dynamic array to use SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in ESTs (expressed sequence tags) for the DNA-assisted breeding of yellowtail.
RESULTS: Clonal RH cell lines were obtained after ionizing radiation; specifically, 78, 64, 129, 55, 42, and 53 clones were isolated after treatment with 3,000, 4,000, 5,000, 6,000, 8,000, or 10,000 rads, respectively. A total of 421 hybrid cell lines were obtained by fusion with mouse B78 cells. Ninety-four microsatellite markers used in the genetic linkage map were genotyped using the 421 hybrid cell lines. Based upon marker retention and genome coverage, we selected 93 hybrid cell lines to form an RH panel. Importantly, we performed the first genotyping of yellowtail markers in an RH panel using a nanofluidic dynamic array (Fluidigm, CA, USA). Then, 580 markers containing ESTs and SNPs were mapped in the first yellowtail RH map.
CONCLUSIONS: We successfully developed a yellowtail RH panel to facilitate the localization of markers. Using this, a framework RH map was constructed with 580 markers. This high-density physical map will serve as a useful tool for the identification of genes related to important breeding traits using genetic structural information, such as conserved synteny. Moreover, in a comparison of 30 sequences in the RH group 1 (SQ1), yellowtail appeared to be evolutionarily closer to medaka and the green-spotted pufferfish than to zebrafish. We suggest that synteny analysis may be potentially useful as a tool to investigate chromosomal evolution by comparison with model fish.
PMID: 24571093 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
General assessment of copy number variation in normal and tumor tissues of the domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris).
J Appl Genet. 2014 Feb 27;
Authors: Gurgul A, Zukowski K, Slaska B, Semik E, Pawlina K, Ząbek T, Jasielczuk I, Bugno-Poniewierska M
In recent years, characterization of a copy number variation (CNV) of the genomic DNA has provided evidence for the relationship of this type of genetic variation with the occurrence of a broad spectrum of diseases, including cancer lesions. Copy number variants (CNVs) also occur in the genomes of healthy individuals as a result of abnormal recombination processes in germ cells and have a hereditary character contributing to the natural genetic diversity. Recent image analysis methods and advanced computational techniques allow for identification of CNVs using SNPs genotyping microarrays based on the analysis of signal intensity observed for markers located in the specific genomic regions. In this study we used CanineHD BeadChip assay (Illumina) to identify both natural and cancer-induced CNVs in the genomes of different dog breeds and in different cancer types occurring in this species. The obtained results showed that structural aberrations are a common phenomenon arising during a tumor progression and are more complex and widespread in tumors of mesenchymal tissue origin than in epithelial tissue originating tumors. The tumor derived CNVs, in comparison to healthy samples, were characterized by larger sizes of regions, higher number of amplifications, and in some cases encompassed genes with potential effect on tumor progression.
PMID: 24573641 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Novel splice-site and missense mutations in the ALDH1A3 gene underlying autosomal recessive anophthalmia/microphthalmia.
Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Feb 25;
Authors: Semerci CN, Kalay E, Y X0131 Ld X0131 R X0131 M C, Dinçer T, Olmez A, Toraman B, Kocyi X011f It A, Bulgu Y, Okur V, Sat X0131 Ro X011f Lu-Tufan L, Akarsu NA
AIM: This study aimed to identify the underlying genetic defect responsible for anophthalmia/microphthalmia.
METHODS: In total, two Turkish families with a total of nine affected individuals were included in the study. Affymetrix 250 K single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping and homozygosity mapping were used to identify the localisation of the genetic defect in question. Coding region of the ALDH1A3 gene was screened via direct sequencing. cDNA samples were generated from primary fibroblast cell cultures for expression analysis. Reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) analysis was performed using direct sequencing of the obtained fragments.
RESULTS: The causative genetic defect was mapped to chromosome 15q26.3. A homozygous G>A substitution (c.666G>A) at the last nucleotide of exon 6 in the ALDH1A3 gene was identified in the first family. Further cDNA sequencing of ALDH1A3 showed that the c.666G>A mutation caused skipping of exon 6, which predicted in-frame loss of 43 amino acids (p.Trp180_Glu222del). A novel missense c.1398C>A mutation in exon 12 of ALDH1A3 that causes the substitution of a conserved asparagine by lysine at amino acid position 466 (p.Asn466Lys) was observed in the second family. No extraocular findings-except for nevus flammeus in one affected individual and a variant of Dandy-Walker malformation in another affected individual-were observed. Autistic-like behaviour and mental retardation were observed in three cases.
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, novel ALDH1A3 mutations identified in the present study confirm the pivotal role of ALDH1A3 in human eye development. Autistic features, previously reported as an associated finding, were considered to be the result of social deprivation and inadequate parenting during early infancy in the presented families.
PMID: 24568872 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from elephants of Nepal.
Tuberculosis (Edinb). 2014 Jan 8;
Authors: Paudel S, Mikota SK, Nakajima C, Gairhe KP, Maharjan B, Thapa J, Poudel A, Shimozuru M, Suzuki Y, Tsubota T
Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured from the lung tissues of 3 captive elephants in Nepal that died with extensive lung lesions. Spoligotyping, TbD1 detection and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) results suggested 3 isolates belonged to a specific lineage of Indo-Oceanic clade, EAI5 SIT 138. One of the elephant isolates had a new synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) T231C in the gyrA sequence, and the same SNP was also found in human isolates in Nepal. MLVA results and transfer history of the elephants suggested that 2 of them might be infected with M. tuberculosis from the same source. These findings indicated the source of M. tuberculosis infection of those elephants were local residents, presumably their handlers. Further investigation including detailed genotyping of elephant and human isolates is needed to clarify the infection route and eventually prevent the transmission of tuberculosis to susceptible hosts.
PMID: 24566285 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]