Personalized Tacrolimus Dose Requirement by CYP3A5 but Not ABCB1 or ACE Genotyping in Both Recipient and Donor after Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

Personalized Tacrolimus Dose Requirement by CYP3A5 but Not ABCB1 or ACE Genotyping in Both Recipient and Donor after Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e109464

Authors: Chen YK, Han LZ, Xue F, Shen CH, Lu J, Yang TH, Zhang JJ, Xia Q

Abstract
Tacrolimus (TAC) is the backbone of an immunosuppressive drug used in most solid organ transplant recipients. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at position 6986G>A in CYP3A5 has been notably involved in the pharmacokinetic variability of TAC. It is hypothesized that CYP3A5 genotyping in patients may provide a guideline for TAC therapeutic regimen. To further evaluate the impact of CYP3A5 variants in donors and recipients, ABCB1 and ACE SNPs in recipients on TAC disposition, clinical and laboratory data were retrospectively reviewed from 90 pediatric patients with liver transplantation and their corresponding donors after 1 year of transplantation. The recipients with CYP3A5 *1/*1 or *1/*3 required more time to achieve TAC therapeutic range during the induction phase, and needed more upward dose during the late induction and the maintained phases, with lower C/D ratio, compared with those with CYP3A5 *3/*3. And donor CYP3A5 genotypes were found to impact on TAC trough concentrations after liver transplantation. No association between ABCB1 or ACE genotypes and TAC disposition post-transplantation was found. These results strongly suggest that CYP3A5 genotyping both in recipient and donor, not ABCB1 or ACE is necessary for establishing a personalized TAC dosage regimen in pediatric liver transplant patients.

PMID: 25310192 [PubMed - in process]

Reliable In Silico Identification of Sequence Polymorphisms and Their Application for Extending the Genetic Map of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

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Reliable In Silico Identification of Sequence Polymorphisms and Their Application for Extending the Genetic Map of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris).

PLoS One. 2014;9(10):e110113

Authors: Holtgräwe D, Sörensen TR, Viehöver P, Schneider J, Schulz B, Borchardt D, Kraft T, Himmelbauer H, Weisshaar B

Abstract
Molecular markers are a highly valuable tool for creating genetic maps. Like in many other crops, sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding is increasingly supported by the application of such genetic markers. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) based markers have a high potential for automated analysis and high-throughput genotyping. We developed a bioinformatics workflow that uses Sanger and 2nd-generation sequence data for detection, evaluation and verification of new transcript-associated SNPs from sugar beet. RNAseq data from one parent of an established mapping population were produced by 454-FLX sequencing and compared to Sanger ESTs derived from the other parent. The workflow established for SNP detection considers the quality values of both types of reads, provides polymorphic alignments as well as selection criteria for reliable SNP detection and allows painless generation of new genetic markers within genes. We obtained a total of 14,323 genic SNPs and InDels. According to empirically optimised settings for the quality parameters, we classified these SNPs into four usability categories. Validation of a subset of the in silico detected SNPs by genotyping the mapping population indicated a high success rate of the SNP detection. Finally, a total of 307 new markers were integrated with existing data into a new genetic map of sugar beet which offers improved resolution and the integration of terminal markers.

PMID: 25302600 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in NFKB-Mediated Inflammatory Pathways in Response to Primary Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer.

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Role of Genetic Polymorphisms in NFKB-Mediated Inflammatory Pathways in Response to Primary Chemoradiation Therapy for Rectal Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2014 Nov 1;90(3):595-602

Authors: Dzhugashvili M, Luengo-Gil G, García T, González-Conejero R, Conesa-Zamora P, Escolar PP, Calvo F, Vicente V, Ayala de la Peña F

Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate whether polymorphisms of genes related to inflammation are associated with pathologic response (primary endpoint) in patients with rectal cancer treated with primary chemoradiation therapy (PCRT).
METHODS AND MATERIALS: Genomic DNA of 159 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with PCRT was genotyped for polymorphisms rs28362491 (NFKB1), rs1213266/rs5789 (PTGS1), rs5275 (PTGS2), and rs16944/rs1143627 (IL1B) using TaqMan single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping assays. The association between each genotype and pathologic response (poor response vs complete or partial response) was analyzed using logistic regression models.
RESULTS: The NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype was associated with pathologic response (odds ratio [OR], 6.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-52.65; P=.03) after PCRT. No statistically significant associations between other polymorphisms and response to PCRT were observed. Patients with the NFKB1 DEL/DEL genotype showed a trend for longer disease-free survival (log-rank test, P=.096) and overall survival (P=.049), which was not significant in a multivariate analysis that included pathologic response. Analysis for 6 polymorphisms showed that patients carrying the haplotype rs28362491-DEL/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G (13.7% of cases) had a higher response rate to PCRT (OR, 8.86; 95% CI, 1.21-64.98; P=.034) than the reference group (rs28362491-INS/rs1143627-A/rs1213266-G/rs5789-C/rs5275-A/rs16944-G). Clinically significant (grade ≥2) acute organ toxicity was also more frequent in patients with that same haplotype (OR, 4.12; 95% CI, 1.11-15.36; P=.037).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that genetic variation in NFKB-related inflammatory pathways might influence sensitivity to primary chemoradiation for rectal cancer. If confirmed, an inflammation-related radiogenetic profile might be used to select patients with rectal cancer for preoperative combined-modality treatment.

PMID: 25304949 [PubMed - in process]

A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is associated with sero-negative Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in a Danish population.

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A non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) is associated with sero-negative Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) in a Danish population.

BMC Res Notes. 2014 Oct 10;7(1):716

Authors: Laska MJ, Hansen B, Troldborg A, Lorenzen T, Stengaard-Pedersen K, Junker P, Nexø BA, Lindegaard HM

Abstract
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that polymorphisms in Toll-like Receptors (TLRs) are associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), but the implicated alleles have differed between studies. The aim of this investigation was to explore whether polymorphisms of TLR genes are associated with RA in a predominantly Caucasian population from Denmark using a case-control approach.
FINDINGS: DNA samples (3 university hospital outpatient clinics) were obtained from patients with RA (n = 704) and healthy controls (n = 639) in a Danish population. TLR single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected based on the previously reported associations with chronic autoimmune diseases. Genotyping for the TLR SNPs was performed using Sequenom Multiplex technology.We identified one SNP in TLR3, [(rs3775291, P = 0.02, OR (95% CI) 1.31 (1.1087-1.5493)] significantly associated with the whole RA cohort. Subgroup analysis according to IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrinullated peptide (CCP) status suggested a significant association of sero-negative RA with the rs3775291 A allele and disease activity in this subset.
CONCLUSION: These observations on a RA population of Danish ancestry suggest that variations in the TLR3 locus may be implicated in the pathogenesis of sero-negative RA. Since this TLR3 SNP has previously been associated with systemic lupus erythematous (SLE), the present findings support the notion that TLR3 genetic variants may represent a common risk factor in different chronic inflammatory conditions, including RA and SLE.

PMID: 25304972 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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