Identification of 99 novel mutations in a worldwide cohort of 1,056 patients with a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy.
Hum Genet. 2013 Apr 5;
Authors: Halbritter J, Porath JD, Diaz KA, Braun DA, Kohl S, Chaki M, Allen SJ, Soliman NA, Hildebrandt F, Otto EA, The GPN Study Group
Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are autosomal-recessive cystic kidney diseases. More than 13 genes are implicated in its pathogenesis to date, accounting for only 40 % of all cases. High-throughput mutation screenings of large patient cohorts represent a powerful tool for diagnostics and identification of novel NPHP genes. We here performed a new high-throughput mutation analysis method to study 13 established NPHP genes (NPHP1-NPHP13) in a worldwide cohort of 1,056 patients diagnosed with NPHP-RC. We first applied multiplexed PCR-based amplification using Fluidigm Access-Array™ technology followed by barcoding and next-generation resequencing on an Illumina platform. As a result, we established the molecular diagnosis in 127/1,056 independent individuals (12.0 %) and identified a single heterozygous truncating mutation in an additional 31 individuals (2.9 %). Altogether, we detected 159 different mutations in 11 out of 13 different NPHP genes, 99 of which were novel. Phenotypically most remarkable were two patients with truncating mutations in INVS/NPHP2 who did not present as infants and did not exhibit extrarenal manifestations. In addition, we present the first case of Caroli disease due to mutations in WDR19/NPHP13 and the second case ever with a recessive mutation in GLIS2/NPHP7. This study represents the most comprehensive mutation analysis in NPHP-RC patients, identifying the largest number of novel mutations in a single study worldwide.
PMID: 23559409 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Association study of the KCNJ3 gene as a susceptibility candidate for schizophrenia in the Chinese population.
Hum Genet. 2011 Sep 17;
Authors: Yamada K, Iwayama Y, Toyota T, Ohnishi T, Ohba H, Maekawa M, Yoshikawa T
We recently reported the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of schizophrenia in the Japanese population. In that study, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs3106653) in the KCNJ3 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3) gene located at 2q24.1 showed association with schizophrenia in two independent sample sets. KCNJ3, also termed GIRK1 or Kir3.1, is a member of the G protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (GIRK) group. GIRKs are widely distributed in the brain and play an important role in regulating neural excitability through the activation of various G protein-coupled receptors. In this study, we set out to examine this association using a different population. We first performed a gene-centric association study of the KCNJ3 gene, by genotyping 38 tagSNPs in the Chinese population. We detected nine SNPs that displayed significant association with schizophrenia (lowest P = 0.0016 for rs3106658, Global significance = 0.036). The initial marker SNP (rs3106653) examined in our prior GWAS in the Japanese population also showed nominally significant association in the Chinese population (P = 0.028). Next, we analyzed transcript levels in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder and from healthy controls, using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We found significantly lower KCNJ3 expression in postmortem brains from schizophrenic and bipolar patients compared with controls. These data suggest that the KCNJ3 gene is genetically associated with schizophrenia in Asian populations and add further evidence to the "channelopathy theory of psychiatric illnesses".
PMID: 21927946 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Current status of genome-wide association studies in cancer.
Hum Genet. 2011 Jun 16;
Authors: Chung CC, Chanock SJ
Genome-wide association studies in cancer have already identified over 150 regions associated with two dozen specific cancers. Already, a handful of multi-cancer susceptibility regions have been uncovered, providing new insights into perhaps common mechanisms of carcinogenesis. For each new susceptibility allele, investigators now face the arduous task of interrogating each region beginning with fine mapping prior to pursuing the biological basis for the direct association of one or more variants. It appears that there may be a significant number of common alleles that contribute to the heritability of a specific cancer. Since each region confers a small contribution to the risk for cancer, it is daunting to consider any single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) as a clinical test. Since the complex genomic architecture of each cancer differs, additional genotyping and sequence analysis will be required to comprehensively catalog susceptibility alleles followed by the formidable task of understanding the interactions between genetic regions as well as the environment. It will be critical to assess the applicability of genetic tests in specific clinical settings, such as when to perform screening tests with calculable risks (e.g., biopsies or chemoprevention), before incorporating SNPs into clinical practice. To advance the current genomic observations to the clinical venue, new studies will need to be designed to validate the utility of known genetic variants in assessing risk for cancer as well as its outcomes.
PMID: 21678065 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Admixture in Mexico City: implications for admixture mapping of type 2 diabetes genetic risk factors.
Hum Genet. 2007 Feb;120(6):807-19
Authors: Martinez-Marignac VL, Valladares A, Cameron E, Chan A, Perera A, Globus-Goldberg R, Wacher N, Kumate J, McKeigue P, O'Donnell D, Shriver MD, Cruz M, Parra EJ
Admixture mapping is a recently developed method for identifying genetic risk factors involved in complex traits or diseases showing prevalence differences between major continental groups. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is at least twice as prevalent in Native American populations as in populations of European ancestry, so admixture mapping is well suited to study the genetic basis of this complex disease. We have characterized the admixture proportions in a sample of 286 unrelated T2D patients and 275 controls from Mexico City and we discuss the implications of the results for admixture mapping studies. Admixture proportions were estimated using 69 autosomal ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). Maternal and paternal contributions were estimated from geographically informative mtDNA and Y-specific polymorphisms. The average proportions of Native American, European and, West African admixture were estimated as 65, 30, and 5%, respectively. The contributions of Native American ancestors to maternal and paternal lineages were estimated as 90 and 40%, respectively. In a logistic model with higher educational status as dependent variable, the odds ratio for higher educational status associated with an increase from 0 to 1 in European admixture proportions was 9.4 (95%, credible interval 3.8-22.6). This association of socioeconomic status with individual admixture proportion shows that genetic stratification in this population is paralleled, and possibly maintained, by socioeconomic stratification. The effective number of generations back to unadmixed ancestors was 6.7 (95% CI 5.7-8.0), from which we can estimate that genome-wide admixture mapping will require typing about 1,400 evenly distributed AIMs to localize genes underlying disease risk between populations of European and Native American ancestry. Sample sizes of about 2,000 cases will be required to detect any locus that contributes an ancestry risk ratio of at least 1.5.
PMID: 17066296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]