Associations between HLA class II alleles and type 1 diabetes mellitus in the Slovak population.
Endocr Regul. 2006 Mar;40(1):1-6
Authors: Buc M, Bucová M, Javor J, Krivosíkova M, Stuchlíkova M, Shawkatova I, Michalková D, Barák L, Jancová E, Petrek M
Several associations between HLA complex and diabetes mellitus type IA were found in various groups of patients of Caucasoid population. This study was therefore prompted to be conducted in Slovak population, since any such has not yet been performed in Slovak population.
PMID: 16964961 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Admixture in Mexico City: implications for admixture mapping of type 2 diabetes genetic risk factors.
Hum Genet. 2007 Feb;120(6):807-19
Authors: Martinez-Marignac VL, Valladares A, Cameron E, Chan A, Perera A, Globus-Goldberg R, Wacher N, Kumate J, McKeigue P, O'Donnell D, Shriver MD, Cruz M, Parra EJ
Admixture mapping is a recently developed method for identifying genetic risk factors involved in complex traits or diseases showing prevalence differences between major continental groups. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is at least twice as prevalent in Native American populations as in populations of European ancestry, so admixture mapping is well suited to study the genetic basis of this complex disease. We have characterized the admixture proportions in a sample of 286 unrelated T2D patients and 275 controls from Mexico City and we discuss the implications of the results for admixture mapping studies. Admixture proportions were estimated using 69 autosomal ancestry-informative markers (AIMs). Maternal and paternal contributions were estimated from geographically informative mtDNA and Y-specific polymorphisms. The average proportions of Native American, European and, West African admixture were estimated as 65, 30, and 5%, respectively. The contributions of Native American ancestors to maternal and paternal lineages were estimated as 90 and 40%, respectively. In a logistic model with higher educational status as dependent variable, the odds ratio for higher educational status associated with an increase from 0 to 1 in European admixture proportions was 9.4 (95%, credible interval 3.8-22.6). This association of socioeconomic status with individual admixture proportion shows that genetic stratification in this population is paralleled, and possibly maintained, by socioeconomic stratification. The effective number of generations back to unadmixed ancestors was 6.7 (95% CI 5.7-8.0), from which we can estimate that genome-wide admixture mapping will require typing about 1,400 evenly distributed AIMs to localize genes underlying disease risk between populations of European and Native American ancestry. Sample sizes of about 2,000 cases will be required to detect any locus that contributes an ancestry risk ratio of at least 1.5.
PMID: 17066296 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Combining sperm typing and linkage disequilibrium analyses reveals differences in selective pressures or recombination rates across human populations.
Genetics. 2007 Feb;175(2):795-804
Authors: Clark VJ, Ptak SE, Tiemann I, Qian Y, Coop G, Stone AC, Przeworski M, Arnheim N, Di Rienzo A
A previous polymorphism survey of the type 2 diabetes gene CAPN10 identified a segment showing an excess of polymorphism levels in all population samples, coinciding with localized breakdown of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in a sample of Hausa from Cameroon, but not in non-African samples. This raised the possibility that a recombination hotspot is present in all populations and we had insufficient power to detect it in the non-African data. To test this possibility, we estimated the crossover rate by sperm typing in five non-African men; these estimates were consistent with the LD decay in the non-African, but not in the Hausa data. Moreover, resequencing the orthologous region in a sample of Western chimpanzees did not show either an excess of polymorphism level or rapid LD decay, suggesting that the processes underlying the patterns observed in humans operated only on the human lineage. These results suggest that a hotspot of recombination has recently arisen in humans and has reached higher frequency in the Hausa than in non-Africans, or that there is no elevation in crossover rate in any human population, and the observed variation results from long-standing balancing selection.
PMID: 17151245 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Retinol binding protein 4 as a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traits.
Mol Genet Metab. 2007 Mar;90(3):338-44
Authors: Craig RL, Chu WS, Elbein SC
Serum retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) was recently described as a new adipokine that reduced peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity and increased hepatic gluconeogenesis. The RBP4 gene maps to 10q23-24, near a region linked to T2DM in Caucasian and Mexican American populations. Hence, sequence variants that alter RBP4 expression or function could increase T2DM susceptibility and reduce insulin sensitivity. We screened the 6 exons, flanking intronic sequence, and 5' and 3' flanking sequences in 48 Caucasian and 48 African American subjects. We identified 21 SNPs, of which 8 were unique to the African American population. Additional public database SNPs were chosen for regions not screened. We selected SNPs for typing based on frequency, linkage disequilibrium, and location in a putative functional or conserved region. We typed 10 SNPs in 191 Caucasians with T2DM and a family history of T2DM, and 188 euglycemic controls with no family history of diabetes. We similarly typed 14 variants in 182 controls and 353 diabetic individuals of African American ancestry. No single variant was associated with type 2 diabetes in either population (p>0.15 in African Americans, p>0.09 in Caucasians), but a haplotype of 8 common SNPs in Caucasians was significantly increased in type 2 diabetics compared with controls (0.137 vs. 0.076, p=0.008). Furthermore, SNPs -804 and +9476 were associated with reduced insulin secretion, (p=0.01 and 0.001, respectively), and SNP +390 with reduced insulin sensitivity (p=0.0005) in Caucasians. Our data suggest that noncoding SNPs may increase diabetes susceptibility in Caucasians and may contribute to insulin resistance and reduced insulin secretion.
PMID: 17174134 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]