Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in older people in Spain (2007-2009): implications for future vaccination strategies.
PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43619
Authors: Ardanuy C, Marimón JM, Calatayud L, Giménez M, Alonso M, Grau I, Pallarés R, Pérez-Trallero E, Liñares J
BACKGROUND: Recently, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) has been recommended for adults. We analyzed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in older adults in Spain before PCV13 introduction.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IPD episodes, defined as clinical findings together with an invasive pneumococcal isolate, were prospectively collected from patients aged over 65 years in three hospitals in Spain from 2007 to 2009. A total of 335 IPD episodes were collected. Pneumonia was the main clinical syndrome, while chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus and cancer were the main underlying diseases. Pneumococcal isolates were serotyped and the molecular typing was performed by PFGE/MLST. PCV13 serotypes accounted for 59.3% of isolates, the most prevalent being serotypes 19A (15.1%), 3 (9.6%), 7F (7.5%), 14 (6.9%) and 1 (5.4%). The most frequent non-PCV13 serotypes were serotypes 16F (4.5%), 22F (3.6%), 24F (3.3%) and 6C (2.1%). The most common genotypes were CC230 (8.5%, serotypes 19A and 24F), CC156 (8.2%, serotypes 9V and 14), ST191 (7.9%, serotype 7F), CC260 (6.6%, serotype 3), ST306 (5.2%, serotype 1), CC30 (4.6%, serotype 16F) and ST433 (3.6%, serotype 22F). Comparing the 335 IPD isolates to 174 invasive pneumococci collected at the same hospitals in 1999-2000, PCV7 serotypes decreased (45.4% vs 18.4%,p<0.001), non-PCV7 serotypes included in PCV13 increased (26.4% vs 41.0%,p = 0.001) and two non-PCV13 serotypes increased (serotype 6C 0% vs 2.1%, p = 0.05; serotype 24F 0.6% vs 3.3%, p = 0.04,).
CONCLUSION: In our older adult population two serotypes (19A and 3) included in PCV13 accounted for about a quarter of IPD episodes in people ≥65 years. Non-PCV13 emerging serotypes should be carefully monitored in future surveillance studies.
PMID: 22928005 [PubMed - in process]
HLA-DQB1* alleles and genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes mellitus.
World J Diabetes. 2012 Aug 15;3(8):149-55
Authors: Mosaad YM, Auf FA, Metwally SS, Elsharkawy AA, El-Hawary AK, Hassan RH, Tawhid ZE, El-Chennawi FA
AIM: To determine human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQB1 allele association with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to clinical and laboratory findings.
METHODS: This study was conducted on 85 unrelated Egyptian children with T1D recruited consecutively from the Pediatric Diabetes Endocrinology outpatients Clinic; Mansoura University Children's Hospital, Egypt. Patient mean follow up period was 2.5 years. Patients were subdivided according to level of HbA1c (optimal/suboptimal control < 8.5% and poor control ≥ 8.5%). The control group consisted of 113 unrelated age- and sex-matched healthy subjects without T1D or other autoimmune diseases. Genomic DNA extraction was done for all subjects using a DNA isolation kit. HLA-Class II-DQB1 allele typing was carried out with a polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe using a INNO-LiPA HLA-DQB1 update kit.
RESULTS: Significant differences were detected between Egyptian patients with T1D and control groups in the frequencies of DQB1*02 [44.4% vs 18.6%, corrected P value (Pc) < 0.001] and DQB1*03 (41.2% vs 24.4%, Pc < 0.001). Significant differences were also observed between control groups and T1D patients in the frequencies of DQB1*05 (14.6% vs 7.2%, P = 0.029) and DQB1*06 (34.1% vs 7.2%, P < 0.001). However, after correction for multiple comparisons, the significance was retained for HLA-DQB1*06 (Pc < 0.001) but lost for HLA-DQB1*05. HLA-DQB1*0201, *0202, *030201 were positively associated with T1D (Pc = 0.014, Pc < 0.001, and Pc < 0.001 respectively), while HLA-DQB1*060101 was negatively associated (Pc < 0.001) with the condition. Although the HLA-DQB1 alleles 030101 and 050101 were significantly higher in controls (P = 0.016, P = 0.025 respectively), both of them lost statistical significance after correction of P value. The frequency of the HLA-DQB1 genotypes 02/02, 02/03, and 03/03 was higher in T1D patients, and the frequency of the genotypes 03/06, 05/06, and 06/06 was higher in controls, these differences being statistically significant before correction. After correction, the genotypes 02/02, 02/03 in T1D, and the genotypes 03/06, 06/06 in controls were still significant (Pc = 0.01, Pc < 0.001, Pc < 0.001, and Pc = 0.04, respectively). Non-significant associations were found between the frequency HLA-DQB1 alleles and genotypes in T1D in relation to the grade of diabetic control, Microalbuminuria, age, gender, age of presentation, weight, height, frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (P = 0.42), serum cholesterol, and fasting and post-prandial level of C-peptide (P = 0.83, P = 0.9, respectively).
CONCLUSION: The Current work suggests that HLA-DQB1 alleles *030201, *0202, *0201, and genotypes 02/03, 02/02 may be susceptibility risk factors for development of T1D in Egyptian children, while the HLA-DQB1*060101 allele, and 03/06, 06/06 genotypes may be protective factors. HLA-DQB1 alleles and genotypes do not contribute to microalbuminuria or grade of diabetic control.
PMID: 22919445 [PubMed - in process]
450 new pubmed citations were retrieved for your search.
Click on the search hyperlink below to display the complete search results:
(typing[Title/Abstract]) AND diabetes[Title/Abstract]
These pubmed results were generated on 2012/07/26
PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million
citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's.
These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals.
PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.
Racial disparities in renal allograft survival: a public health issue?
J Am Coll Surg. 2007 May;204(5):894-902; discussion 902-3
Authors: Eckhoff DE, Young CJ, Gaston RS, Fineman SW, Deierhoi MH, Foushee MT, Brown RN, Diethelm AG
BACKGROUND: Racial disparities in renal transplantation outcomes have been documented with inferior allograft survival among African Americans compared with non-African Americans. These differences have been attributed to a variety of factors, including immunologic hyperresponsiveness, socioeconomic status, compliance, HLA matching, and access to care. The purpose of this study was to examine both immunologic and nonimmunologic risk factors for allograft loss with a goal of defining targeted strategies to improve outcomes among African Americans.
STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed all primary deceased-donor adult renal transplants (n = 2,453) at our center between May 1987 and December 2004. Analysis included the impact of recipient and donor characteristics, HLA typing, and immunosuppressive regimen on graft outcomes. Data were analyzed using standard Kaplan-Meier actuarial techniques and were explored with nonparametric and parametric methods. Multivariable analyses in the hazard-function domain were done to identify specific risk factors associated with graft loss.
RESULTS: The 1-year allograft survival in recipients improved substantially throughout the study period, and 3-year allograft survival also improved. Risk factor analyses are shown by type of allograft and according to specific time periods. Risk of immunologic graft loss (acute rejection) was most prominent during the early phase. During late-phase, immunologic risk persists (chronic rejection), but recurrent disease, graft quality, and recipient's comorbidities have an increasingly greater role.
CONCLUSIONS: Advances in immunosuppression regimens have contributed to allograft survival in both early and late (constant) phases throughout all eras, but improvement in longterm outcomes for African Americans continues to lag behind non-African Americans. The disparity in renal allograft loss between African Americans and non-African Americans over time indicates that beyond immunologic risk, the impact of nonimmunologic variables, such as time on dialysis pretransplantation, diabetes, and access to medical care, can be key issues.
PMID: 17481506 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]