Risk of retinoblastoma is associated with a maternal polymorphism in dihydrofolatereductase (DHFR) and prenatal folic acid intake.
Cancer. 2012 May 30;
Authors: Orjuela MA, Cabrera-Muñoz L, Paul L, Ramirez-Ortiz MA, Liu X, Chen J, Mejia-Rodriguez F, Medina-Sanson A, Diaz-Carreño S, Suen IH, Selhub J, Ponce-Castañeda MV
BACKGROUND: The incidence of unilateral retinoblastoma varies globally, suggesting possible environmental contributors to disease incidence. Maternal intake of naturally occurring folate from vegetables during pregnancy is associated inversely with the risk of retinoblastoma in offspring. METHODS: The authors used a case-control study design to examine the association between retinoblastoma risk and maternal variations in the folate-metabolizing genes methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (a cytosine-to-thymine substitution at nucleotide 677 [MTHFR677C→T]; reference single nucleotide polymorphism rs1801133) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) (a 19-base-pair deletion of intron 1a [DHFR19bpdel]; rs70991108). In central Mexico, 103 mothers of children with newly diagnosed unilateral retinoblastoma were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved study along with a control group of 97 mothers who had healthy children. Mothers were interviewed regarding perinatal characteristics, including use of prenatal vitamin supplements, and gave peripheral blood samples, which were used for polymerase chain reaction-based genotyping of rs1801133 and rs70991108. RESULTS: The risk of having a child with unilateral retinoblastoma was associated with maternal homozygosity for DHFR19bpdel (odds ratio, 3.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.89-7.55; P = .0002), even after controlling for the child's DHFR19bpdel genotype (odds ratio, 2.81; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-5.99; P = .0073). In a subgroup of 167 mothers with data on prenatal intake of supplements containing folic acid (a synthetic form of folate), DHFR19bpdel-associated risk was elevated significantly only among those who reported taking folic acid supplements. Maternal MTHFR genotype was unrelated to the risk of having a child with retinoblastoma. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal homozygosity for a polymorphism in the DHFR gene necessary for converting synthetic folic acid into biologic folate was associated with an increased risk for retinoblastoma. Prenatal ingestion of synthetic folic acid supplements may be associated with increased risk for early childhood carcinogenesis in a genetically susceptible subset of the population. Cancer 2012. © 2012 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 22648968 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A single-nucleotide polymorphism in the MTHFR (methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase) gene is associated with risk of radiation pneumonitis in lung cancer patients treated with thoracic radiation therapy.
Cancer. 2011 Dec 5;
Authors: Mak RH, Alexander BM, Asomaning K, Heist RS, Liu CY, Su L, Zhai R, Ancukiewicz M, Napolitano B, Niemierko A, Willers H, Choi NC, Christiani DC
BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes from oxidative stress pathways and risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients treated with thoracic radiation therapy for locally advanced lung cancer. METHODS: A review was conducted of 136 patients treated with radiation therapy for lung cancer between 2001 and 2007, and who had prior genotyping of functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in oxidative stress genes including superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2; rs4880) and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; rs1801131, rs1801133). RP events were retrospectively scored using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Cox proportional hazard regression was performed to identify clinical variables and genotypes associated with risk of RP of grades ≥2 and ≥3 on univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively. P values were corrected for multiple hypothesis esting. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 21.4 months, the incidence of grade ≥2 RP was 29% and grade ≥3 RP was 14%. On multivariate analysis, after adjusting for clinical factors such as concurrent chemotherapy and consolidation docetaxel, and lung dosimetric parameters such as volume receiving greater than 20 Gy and mean lung dose, MTHFR genotype (rs1801131; AA versus AC/CC) was significantly associated with risk of grade ≥2 RP (hazard ratio: 0.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.18-0.76; P = .006, corrected P = .018) and grade ≥3 RP (hazard ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.70; P = .01; corrected P = .03). SOD2 genotype was not associated with RP. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed an association between MTHFR genotype and risk of clinically significant RP. Further study of MTHFR-related pathways may provide insight into the mechanisms behind RP. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 22144047 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Polymorphic markers associated with severe oxaliplatin-induced, chronic peripheral neuropathy in colon cancer patients.
Cancer. 2011 Oct 21;
Authors: Won HH, Lee J, Park JO, Park YS, Lim HY, Kang WK, Kim JW, Lee SY, Park SH
BACKGROUND: To identify potential genetic markers for severe oxaliplatin-induced chronic peripheral neuropathy (OXCPN), the authors performed a genome-wide association analysis of patients with colon cancer who received oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which DNA was purified in peripheral blood from patients with colon cancer who received oxaliplatin. The primary endpoint was the development of severe (grade 2 lasting for >7 days or grade 3) OXCPN. For the discovery set, genotyping was done for 96 patients who received adjuvant fluorouracil and oxaliplatin using the a genome-wide human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. An association between polymorphisms and severe OXCPN was investigated. At the same time, 247 patients who received oxaliplatin-based, first-line chemotherapy for advanced disease were enrolled as a validation set. RESULTS: Among the 32 genotyped candidate SNPs selected from the discovery set, 9 SNPs in 8 genes (tachykinin, precursor 1[TAC1]; forkhead box C1 [FOXC1]; integrin, alpha 1 [ITGA1]; acylphosphatase 2, muscle type [ACYP2]; deleted in lymphocytic leukemia, 7 [DLEU7]; B-cell translocation gene 4 [BTG4]; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor 1 [CAMK2N1]; and phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase 2 [FARS2]) had nominal replication (P < .05). The most significant association was observed at reference SNP number (rs)10486003 in TAC1 (P = 4.84 × 10(-7) ) in combined data from 2 sets. Five SNPs (rs10486003, rs2338, rs830884, rs843748, and rs797519) were significant in a multiple regression analysis (P < .05). Overall prediction accuracy calculated by the regression model was 72.8% (95% confidence interval, 65.8%-79.9%) in the model development and 75.9% (95% confidence interval, 66.9%-84.9%) in the model evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that a genome-wide pharmacogenomic approach is useful for identifying novel polymorphism predictors of severe OXCPN that may be used in personalized chemotherapy. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 22020760 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
A functional single nucleotide polymorphism at the promoter region of cyclin A2 is associated with increased risk of colon, liver, and lung cancers.
Cancer. 2011 Sep 1;117(17):4080-91
Authors: Kim DH, Park SE, Kim M, Ji YI, Kang MY, Jung EH, Ko E, Kim Y, Kim S, Shim YM, Park J
BACKGROUND: The objective of this was to identify functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and cyclins that are associated with risk of human cancer.
METHODS: First, 45 SNPs in CDKs and cyclins were analyzed in 106 lung cancers and 108 controls for a pilot study. One SNP (reference SNP [rs] 769236, +1 guanine to adenine [G→A]) at the promoter region of cyclin A2 (CCNA2) also was analyzed in 1989 cancers (300 breast cancers, 450 colorectal cancers, 450 gastric cancers, 367 hepatocellular carcinomas, and 422 lung cancers) and in 1096 controls. Genotyping was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization/time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Transcriptional activity of the SNP according to the cell cycle was analyzed by using a luciferase reporter assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis in NIH3T3 cells.
RESULTS: In the pilot study, the SNP (rs769236) was associated significantly with the risk of lung cancer. In the expanded study, multivariate logistic regression indicated that the AA homozygous variant of the SNP was associated significantly with the development of lung cancer (P < .0001; codominant model), colorectal cancer (P < .0001), and hepatocellular carcinoma (P = .02) but not with breast cancer or gastric cancer. The luciferase activity of a 300-base pair construct that contained the A allele was 1.5-fold greater than the activity of a construct with the G allele in NIH3T3 cells. The high luciferase activity of constructs that contained the A allele did not change with cell cycle progression.
CONCLUSIONS: The current results suggested that an SNP (rs769236) at the promoter of CCNA2 may be associated significantly with increased risk of colon, liver, and lung cancers. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.
PMID: 21858804 [PubMed - in process]