Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in wheat and barley breeding.
Phytopathology. 2012 Jun;102(6):560-6
Authors: Miedaner T, Korzun V
ABSTRACT Marker-assisted selection (MAS) provides opportunities for enhancing the response from selection because molecular markers can be applied at the seedling stage, with high precision and reductions in cost. About each of 50 genes conferring monogenic resistances and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for quantitative disease resistances have been reported in wheat and barley. For detecting single-major gene resistance, MAS could be easily applied, but is often not necessary because the resistances are selected phenotypically. In quantitative disease resistances, MAS would be very useful, but the individual QTL often have small effects. Additionally, only a few monogenic resistances are durable and only a few QTL with high effects have been successfully transferred into elite breeding material. Further economic and biological constraints, e.g., a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects, hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Examples in which MAS has been successfully applied to practical breeding are the wheat rust resistance genes Lr34 and Yr36, the eyespot resistance gene Pch1, the recessive resistance genes rym4/rym5 to barley yellow mosaic viruses, mlo to barley powdery mildew, and two QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat (Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A). Newly identified broad-spectrum resistance genes/QTL conferring resistance to multiple taxa of pathogens offer additional perspectives for MAS. In the future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding.
PMID: 22568813 [PubMed - in process]
Biological and molecular characterization of Hessian fly (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) from Israel.
Bull Entomol Res. 2012 May 8;:1-12
Authors: Johnson AJ, Weintraub PG, Katoch R, Schemerhorn BJ, Shukle RH
Samples of a dipteran pest of wheat were tested to confirm identity, describe local populations and suggest the use of deploying resistance (R) genes in wheat cultivars for control of Mayetiola destructor, Hessian fly (HF). Morphological evaluation of adults and a free-choice oviposition preference test documenting that females overwhelmingly preferred to oviposit on wheat instead of barley supported they were HF. Using the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (coxI), the Barcoding Region, nine haplotypes were revealed. Two were found only in the Israeli collections and averaged 3% sequence divergence compared to the other seven haplotypes found in the United States, Israel and Syria. In evaluations of virulence, the Israeli HF in culture was virulent to 11 of the 19 (R) genes tested, and complementation analysis documented that, for four of the R genes tested, the Israeli HF shared loci for virulence with HF from the United States. Levels of HF infestation at seven Israeli fields were at least at the 5-8% level, which historically has indicated a significant yield loss. Microsatellite genotyping of the five HF collections from Israel revealed mixed populations in Israel that are distinctly separate from the single population in Syria.
PMID: 22564785 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Virulence Profile and Genetic Structure of a North Dakota Population of Pyrenophora teres f. teres, the Causal Agent of Net Form Net Blotch of Barley.
Phytopathology. 2012 May;102(5):539-46
Authors: Liu ZH, Zhong S, Stasko AK, Edwards MC, Friesen TL
ABSTRACT A Pyrenophora teres f. teres population in North Dakota was analyzed for virulence variation and genetic diversity using 75 monospore isolates that were collected across a 4-year period (2004 to 2007) from two North Dakota State University agricultural experiment stations at Fargo and Langdon. Pathogenicity tests by inoculation onto 22 barley differential lines at seedling stage revealed 49 pathotypes, indicating a wide range of pathogenic diversity. Two-way analysis of variance of disease ratings revealed a significant difference in the virulence among isolates and in the resistance among barley lines, as well as in the interactions between the two. 'CI5791', 'Algerian', and 'Heartland' were three barley lines showing a high level of seedling resistance to all North Dakota isolates tested; however, many previously reported resistance genes have been overcome. Forty multilocus genotypes were identified from this set of isolates by genotyping at 13 simple-sequence repeat loci. High percentages of clonal cultures were detected in the samplings from 2005 and 2007 in Fargo and 2005 in Langdon. Using a clone-corrected sample set, the mean gene diversity (h) was estimated to be 0.58, approximately the same for both locations. The calculated Wright's F(ST) value is small (0.11) but was significantly >0, indicating a significant differentiation between the Fargo and Langdon populations. In the gametic disequilibrium test, only 3 of 78 possible pairwise comparisons over all isolates showed significant (P < 0.05) nonrandom association, suggesting a random mating mode. Our results suggest that the populations from the two locations are derived from a common source and undergo frequent recombination. This research provides important information for barley breeders regarding development and deployment of cultivars with resistance to net form net blotch in this region.
PMID: 22494251 [PubMed - in process]
Development of High-Density Genetic Maps for Barley and Wheat Using a Novel Two-Enzyme Genotyping-by-Sequencing Approach.
PLoS One. 2012;7(2):e32253
Authors: Poland JA, Brown PJ, Sorrells ME, Jannink JL
Advancements in next-generation sequencing technology have enabled whole genome re-sequencing in many species providing unprecedented discovery and characterization of molecular polymorphisms. There are limitations, however, to next-generation sequencing approaches for species with large complex genomes such as barley and wheat. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been developed as a tool for association studies and genomics-assisted breeding in a range of species including those with complex genomes. GBS uses restriction enzymes for targeted complexity reduction followed by multiplex sequencing to produce high-quality polymorphism data at a relatively low per sample cost. Here we present a GBS approach for species that currently lack a reference genome sequence. We developed a novel two-enzyme GBS protocol and genotyped bi-parental barley and wheat populations to develop a genetically anchored reference map of identified SNPs and tags. We were able to map over 34,000 SNPs and 240,000 tags onto the Oregon Wolfe Barley reference map, and 20,000 SNPs and 367,000 tags on the Synthetic W9784×Opata85 (SynOpDH) wheat reference map. To further evaluate GBS in wheat, we also constructed a de novo genetic map using only SNP markers from the GBS data. The GBS approach presented here provides a powerful method of developing high-density markers in species without a sequenced genome while providing valuable tools for anchoring and ordering physical maps and whole-genome shotgun sequence. Development of the sequenced reference genome(s) will in turn increase the utility of GBS data enabling physical mapping of genes and haplotype imputation of missing data. Finally, as a result of low per-sample costs, GBS will have broad application in genomics-assisted plant breeding programs.
PMID: 22389690 [PubMed - in process]
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